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Cultural Universality
the assumption that a fixed set of mental disorders exists whose obvious manifestations cut across cultures
Cultural Relativism
the belief that lifestyles, cultural values, and worldviews affect the expression and determination of deviant behavior
Prevalence
(of a disorder) indicates the percentage of people in a population who suffer from a disorder at a given point in time
Lifetime Prevalence
refers to the total proportion of people in the population who have ever had a disorder in their lives
Incidence
refers to the onset or occurrence of a given disorder over some period of time
Mass Madness
group hysteria, most notably tarantism, a dance mania
Lycanthropy
a mental disorder in which victims imagine themselves to be wolves and imitate wolves' actions
Moral Treatment Movement
a shift to more human treatment of the mentally disturbed
Biological (Organic) View
the belief that mental disorders have a physical or physiological basis
Paresis
syphilis of the brain
Psychological View
the belief that mental disorders are caused by psychological and emotional factors rather than organic or biological ones
Cathartic Method
a therapeutic use of verbal expression to release pent-up emotional conflicts
Behaviorism
stressed the importance of directly observable behaviors and stimuli that evoked, reinforced and extinguished them
Managed health care
the industrialization of health care, whereby large organizations in the private sector control the delivery of services
multicultural psychology
stresses the importance of culture, race, ethnicity, gender, age, etc. in understanding and treating abnormal behavior
Multipath Model
a way of looking at the variety and complexity of contributors to mental disorders
Neurons
nerve cells that transmit messages throughout the body
Forebrain
controls all the higher mental functions associated with human consciousness, learning, speech, thought, and memory
Thalamus
serves as a relay station, transmitting nerve impulses from one part of the brain to another
Hypothalamus
regulates bodily drives, such as hunger, thirst, and sex, and body conditions, such as temperature and hormone balance
Limbic system
experiencing and expressing emotions and motivation
Midbrain
involved in vision and hearing and along with the hindbrain, control of sleep, alertness, and pain
Hindbrain
manufactures serotonin, controls fucntions such as heart rate, sleep, and respiration
Reticular formation
network of nerve fibers that controls bodily states such as sleep, alertness, and attention- starts in the hindbrain and threads to the midbrain
Diathesis-Stress Model
holds that instead of inheriting a mental disorder, a predisposition is inherited. Stressors in the environment are then able to activate the predisposition
Psychodynamic Model
disorders are the result of repressed childhood traumas and anxieties
Defense Mechnaisms
ego-protection strategies that shelter the individual from anxiety, operate unconsciously, and distort reality
Pleasure principle
the impulsive, pleasure-seeking aspect of our being from which the id operates
Reality principle
an awareness of the deamands o the environment and of the need to adjust behavior to meet these demands from which the ego operates
Psychosexual Stages
In psychodynamic theory, the sequence of stages--oral, anal, phallic, latency, and genital--through which human personality develops
Psychoanalysis
therapy whose goals are to uncover repressed material, to help clients achieve insight into inner motivations and desires, and to resolve childhood conflicts that affect current relationships
Free association
psychoanalytic therapeutic technique in which the patient says whatever comes to mind for the purpose of revealing his or her unconscious
Resistance (Psychoanalysis)
a process in which the patient unconsciously attempts to impeded the analysis by preventing the exposure of repressed material
Transference
process by which a patient reenacts early conflicts by carrying over and applying to the analyst feelings and attitudes that the patient had toward significant others in the past
Classical Conditioning
responses to new stimuli are learned through association
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS)
the stimulus that elicits an unconditioned response
Unconditioned Response (UCR)
the unlearned response made to an unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired some of the properties of another stimulus with which it has been paired
Conditioned Response (CR)
a learned response to a previously neutral stimulus that has acquired some of the properties of another stimulus with which it has been paired
Operant Behavior
a voluntary controllable behavior, such as walking or thinking, that "operates" on an individual's environment
Operant Conditioning
a theory of learning that holds that behaviors are controlled by the consequences that follow them
Observational Learning Theory
theory that suggests that an individual can acquire new behaviors by watching other people perform them
Modeling
process of learning by observing models (and later imitating them)
Cognitive Models
models based on the assumption that conscious thought mediates and individual's emotional state and/or behavior in response to a stimulus
Schema
a set of underlying assumptions heavily influenced by a person's experiences, values, and perceived capabilities
A-B-C Theory of Personality
(Albert Ellis) A is activating event, B is belief regarding event, C is emotional response. A never causes C
Humanistic Perspective
the optimisitic viewpoint that people are born with the ability to fulfill their potential and that abnormal behavior results from disharmony between the person's potential and his or her self-concept
Self-acutalization
an inherent tendency to strive toward the realization of one's full potential
Self-concept
an individual's assessment of his or her own value and worth
Existential Approach
focuses on human alienation in an increasingly technological and impersonal world, the individual in the context of the human condition, and on the responsibility to others, as well as to oneself
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