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All flashcards are made by a student and based on:
Textbook: BRADY [Complete Review] SUCCESS FOR THE EMT; 2nd Edition; Joseph J. Mistovich & Edward B. Kuvlesky
Textbook: EMT PREHOSPITAL CARE; Revised 3rd Edition; Mark C. Henry, MD & Edward R. Stapleton, EMT-P
The flashcards may be incomplete or incorrect. Some things may be paraphrased. This stack does not include any information that I already know by heart.
Trendelenburg position
patient is supine with legs elevated 12 inches and/or patient is supine with the entire gurney at a 45 degree angle and the feet are at the upper end.
Fowler's position
patient is supine with body elevated 45 to 60 degree angle
Technical Assistance Program Assessment Standards:
1. Regulation and Policy
2. Resource management
3. Human resources and Training
4. Transportation
5. Facilities
6. Communications
7. Public information and Education
8. Medical direction
9. Trauma systems
10. Evaluation
Pupils are Equal, Round, Reactive to Light
3 Factors to Assess in Pupils
reactivity to light
Unequal Pupils Mean...
patient may have: - stroke - head injury - artificial eye
When logrolling use ___________ muscles whenever possible.
Signs of TB are...
coughing up blood tinged sputum
profuse sweating
recent weight loss
T/F - Patient has altered mental status and is disoriented to time, place, and person. Police should be involved.
False. - Treat based on implied consent - If necessary, restrain - Provide care
8 things that can throw off a pulse oximeter reading:
1. hypoperfusion/shock 2. hypothermia 3. cold injury 4. excessive movement 5. seizures 6. nail polish 7. carbon monoxide poisoning 8. anemia
Nationally defined as someone who successfully completed DOT training program
Responsibilities: self/others safety, patient assessment, lifting/moving, transport and transfer of care, record keeping, patient advocacy. 
[EMT ch1]
Provides additional advanced skills: intubation, IV fluid therapy, some drug administration
[EMT ch1]
Performs advanced skills: ECG interpretation, drug therapy, invasive airway procedures, defibrillation
[EMT ch1]
Quality Assurance/Quality Improvement (QI) includes:
- reviewing prehospital documentation >> to ensure accuracy - reviewing ambulance runs >> to make sure care was appropriate - getting patient and hospital feedback >> to improve quality - maintain vehicle and equipment >> to prevent "accidents" - maintain personal skills
What is BSI and what does it include?
Body Substance Isolation the use of Personal Protective Equipment - gloves - masks - gowns - eye protection gear
Universal Precautions
using a barrier when I might touch fluids that: - can carry blood-borne pathogens (blood, sex organ fluids, serous fluids, breast milk) - can be mixed with blood or carry other pathogens (urine, feces, nasal fluids, sputum, sweat, tears, vomit)
Standard Precautions
- Universal Precautions and BSI put together. - Apply to ALL patients
Transmission-Based Precautions
are added on top of Standard Precautions when you suspect highly contagious disease - contact precautions - droplet precautions - airborne precautions
When is it OK to give out confidential patient information?
- transfer to other health-care providers - third party billing forms - response to legal subpoena - when required by state law
What 7 things should EMT's report?
- infectious disease exposure - child/elder abuse - family violence - assaults - gunshot/stab wounds - animal bites - deaths
The cricoid cartilage is located in the _________ portion of the _________.
inferior / larynx
Normal breathing rate for an adult:
12 to 20 times a minute 
(8-12 can be normal with adequate tidal volume)
Normal breathing rate for a child:
15 to 30 times a minute
Normal breathing rate for an infant:
25 to 50 times a minute
Seesaw breathing in an infant indicates:
Severe respiratory distress
Respiratory failure
If you cannot tell if the patient is breathing adequately what must you do?
BVM immediately, patient may already be hypoxic (BVM does no harm)
deviation form the accepted standard of care resulting in injury to the patient
Patients who refuse care must sign a _________ documented by a _________.
release / witness
What 4 things must be present to establish negligence (medical malpractice)?
1. Duty to act 2. Breach of duty 3. Damage 4. Causal connection
DNR Order
Do Not Resuscitate Order
A document signed by a physician directing not to resuscitate a patient
away from midline
closer to the trunk
Palm of hand
Palmar surface
Sole of foot
Plantar surface
closer to center of body
farther from center of body
Transverse Plane
horizontal slice; separates body into superior and inferior halves
Mid-axillary / frontal (coronal) plane
side slice; separates body into anterior/ventral and posterior/dorsal halves
Midline and sagittal (midsagittal) plane
vertical slice; separates body into right and left halves
The body contains ____ bones
The narrowest section of the airway in an infant is _________
the cricoid cartilage
Cardiac arrest
the cessation of a functional heartbeat
a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands that increases sympathetic activity (e.g., the heart rate and the force of contraction of the heart
straightening joint
bending a joint
Prolonged hypoperfusion can result in...
permanent cell damage and death
a hormone produced by pancreas; needed for glucose metabolism
Lateral recumbent position
person is laying on the side; good position for very pregnant women
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