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What are the functions of cartilage?
-Comprise parts of skeleton where flexibility is required.
-Articular surfaces (smooth, no friction)
-Template for bone formation.
Younger people have _______ cartilage?
MORE
Composition of cartilage?
dense network of collage and elastic fibers embedded in chondroitin sulfate.
What is condroitin sulfate?
a jelly like ground substance.
Cartilage is capable of what in reguards to other connective tissues?
endures more stress than dense or loose connective fibers.
Cartilage strength and resistance is due to what?
strength-collagen fibers
resiliance(plasticity)-chondroitin sulfate.
Chondrocytes are derived from?
Chondroblasts
Chondrocytes reside in?
Lacunae (little lakes)
Describe perichondrium.
-covers most cartilage
-dense irregular CT
-contains nerves
Cartilage is _________. In reguards to vascularity.
avascular
T/F

Cartilage has no blood vessels or nerves, grows slowly, and heals poorly.
True
Why does cartilage heal poorly?
lack of blood supply and confinement of chondrocytes to lacunae.
what are the types of cartilage?
Hyaline
fibro
elastic
What is the function of a chondrocyte?
obtain nutrients and dispose of wastes by diffusion.
After becoming vascularized, perichondrium becomes what?
periostem
What is the most abundant type of cartilage in the body?
Hyaline
Where is hyaline cartilage found?
-nasal septum
-larynx
-tracheal rings
-most articular surfaces
-sternal ends of ribs.
does hyaline cartilage have a perichondrium?
yes. except for articular cartilage and epiphyseal plates.
What are some characteristics of hyaline cartilage?
-bluish-white shiny substance
-collagen fibers are very fine, and not visible with ordinary stain.
Describe fibrocartilage.
-frequently occurs as a disk-shaped segment between bones.
-strongest type of cartilage.
-has no perichondrium.
what are some places that fibrocartilage commonly occurs?
-interverbral discs-spine
-pubic symphysis-pelvis
-menisci -knee
-distal radioulnar joint-forearm
-temporomandibular joint-jaw
What type of cartilage is histologically similar to hyaline?
elastic
where is elastic cartilage found?
-external ear
-external auditory canal
-epiglottis
-walls of the auditory tubes
what is the difference between hyaline and elastic cartilage?
elastic cartilage has numerous bundles of branching elastic fibers within their matrix.
What are the functions of Bone tissue?
-support soft tissues
-protect internal organs
-assist in movement
-mineral homeostasis: store calcium and phosphorus
-Blood cell production: red marrow
-Store triglycerides: yellow marrow
What is the shaft/body of a long bone called?
diaphysis
what are the ends of a long bone called?
epiphyses
what do you call the place where the epiphyses and diaphysis meet?
metaphyses
what is found at the metaphysis of a growing bone?
an epiphyseal plate
what is the hyaline cartilage covering the epiphyses called?
articular cartilage
what do you call dense irrecular CT that covers the bone?
Periosteum
Where does DICT not cover a long bone?
where there is articular cartilage.
What do you call the space inside the diaphysis?
Marrow cavity
what is the membrane that lines the marrow cavity?
endosteum
what makes up the bone matrix?
25% h2o
25% collagen
50% hydroxyapatite
what is hydroxyapatite?
part of the bone matrix that is for hardness/compression strength. composed of calcium phosphate and calcium carbonate.
what cells make up bone tissue?
-osteogenic cells
-oseoblasts
-osteocytes
-osteoclasts
What is an Osteogenic cell?
a stem cell that can divide and differentiate into osteoblasts
what is an osteoblast?
a bone cell that secretes bone matrix and differentiates into osteocytes
what is an osteocyte?
a mature bone cell; regulates the composition of bone matrix.
what is an osteoclast?
a bone cell that releases enzymes that digest bone matrix for remodeling of bone.
Where are osteogenic cells derived from?
mesenchyme
what are the only mitotic bone cell?
osteogenic cells
what bone cells secrete collagen fibers?
osteoblasts
what bone cells are interconnected by gap junctions?
osteocytes
how are osteoclasts formed?
by the fusion of numerous monocytes (osteoclasts are very large)
describe compact bone tissue.
-contains few spaces
-forms external layer of all bones
-makes up the bulk of diaphyses of long bones
-provides protection and support
-resists stress
what is a Haversian system?
units of bone tissue aligned with lines of stress
what makes up a Haversian system?
-haversian canal
-concentric lamellae-tree rings
-lacunae-betwen each lamellae contains an osteocyte
-canaliculi- tiny canals that project from lacunae.
Haversian canals go what direction? what do they carry?
-run longitudinally
-they carry vessels and nerves
-they intersect Volkmans canals.
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