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Scientist _______ ________ (1473-1543) wrote On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres (1543) to contradict the Ptolemaic geocentric view of the universe, instead asserting a heliocentric view, meaning that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe.
Nicolaus Copernicus
Copernicus'
work On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres was published the year of his death; Copernicus had feared the immense ridicule he knew the heliocentric (sun-centered universe) theory would bring and thus did not publish his work sooner. On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres was placed on the Index of Prohibited Books in 1616, a list compiled by the Roman Catholic Church of works that were banned. Any challenge to the traditional geocentric view caused great controversy as it shook people’s core beliefs that the earth being at the center of the universe affirmed God’s concern for the earth and its inhabitants.
_________ (1564-1642) was an Italian physicist, astrologer, and astronomer associated with the Scientific Revolution who popularized the controversial heliocentric (sun-centered universe) theory of planetary motion by writing in Italian instead of in Latin; he/she was the first person to study the universe using a telescope.
Galileo
Galileo
Using a telescope (which was first developed in the Netherlands), Galileo made observations about the universe and heavenly bodies including the presence of craters on the moon and spots on the sun; these observations were contradictory to the long-held belief in the perfection of heavenly bodies. The Starry Messenger (1610), Galileo’s most important work, presents the first scientific observations ever to have been made through a telescope and contains his observations about the Moon, stars, and moons of Jupiter.
Galileo was placed on trial in 1633 by the ______ for suspicion of heresy involving, among other things, his popularization of the heliocentric theory, which had caused uproar in the Church due to the idea that the earth was no longer at the center of God’s universe; Galileo was ultimately placed under house arrest until his death.
Inquisition
Although Galileo challenged scholars, church authorities, and scientists who believed that the earth was at the center of the universe,
he had no intention of challenging or undermining Christianity. Galileo believed that men should use the minds God has given them in order to learn more about the universe He created. The church attacked Galileo for his defense of heliocentrism and claimed that it was contrary to Scripture. Until the 1820s, the Roman Catholic Church continued to ban Copernicus’s heliocentric views.
_________ (1571-1630), a German mathematician, astronomer, and Lutheran, is best known for his laws of planetary motion, which stated that planetary orbits are elliptical, not circular; like Galileo, this scientist believed that humans should use God-given abilities to discover truths about the natural world.
Johannes Kepler
Like Copernicus, Kepler’s
work also contradicted the popular geocentric theory which states that the earth orbits around the sun. Kepler corrected Copernicus’ theory of circular orbits and refined the heliocentric theory. However, Kepler was not able to explain exactly why the orbit was elliptical.
The term ______ refers to Enlightenment thinkers who believed that humanity could achieve a state of perfection, rejected traditional religious organizations, embraced Deism, and followed the philosophy of John Locke.
philosophes
English philosopher and supporter of absolutism Thomas Hobbes’ (1588-1679) famous political treatise ________ described how natural man, left to his own desires, is “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish and short,” and that government operating under the social contract should maintain peace and order using any means to control the savage tendencies of man.
Leviathan
In Leviathan, Hobbes advocated
a government with a strong absolute ruler who imposed rules in order to protect men from one another’s naturally savage, brutish tendencies. Social contract is the theory that people give their sovereign rights over to a government in exchange for the government maintaining order in society through the rule of law.
The _______ _______ refers to the theory that contrasts the divine right to rule and instead states that governments are formed in order to fulfill the economic and social needs of the governed; under this theory, people resign to live under a sovereign government in order to live in society controlled by the rule of law.
social contract
Philosophers who support the social contract theory
reject the idea that governments are created through divine right; instead, these philosophers believe that governments exist to serve the needs of the people.
 ____ (1642-1727), scientist during the Scientific Revolution, compiled the work of Keppler and Galileo, theorized the Laws of gravity and Motion, and explained the elliptical orbits of planets around the sun; in addition, this brilliant British thinker used gravity to explain the orderly movement of the planets and outlined this and other similar ideas on the natural laws of the universe in his 1687 work, Principa Mathematica.
Isaac Newton
Newton described how
 gravity, the mutual attraction between physical beings in the universe, results in the earth acting on the sun and the sun acting on the earth; thus, this mutual attraction causes the earth to move in a predictable pattern. Newton gave mathematical evidence the heliocentric universe and over time, opposition to this sun-centered theory faded.
During the Enlightenment, calculus was invented by which of these two men?

I. Newton
II. Leibnitz
The discovery of calculus,
 which allowed mathematicians to predict trajectories and curves, proved the theories of scientists such as Copernicus and Galileo.
The discoveries of Sir Isaac Newton had which of the following effects? (Check all that apply.)
Influenced the ascent of modern science Led to the belief system known as Deism Led to the view that the universe is disorderly, chaotic, and unpredictable Inspired the intellectual movement known as the Enlightenment Influenced the emotional, nature-centered Romantic Movement
French Enlightenment philosopher ________ wrote the book Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (1686) in order to exposit and make known various discoveries of the Scientific Revolution, such as the astronomical findings of Copernicus and physics of Descartes.
Fontenelle
Fontenelle stated,
 "A well cultivated mind is made up of all the minds of preceding ages; it is only the one single mind educated by all previous time." In his book Conversations on the Plurality of Worlds (1686), Fontenelle also speculated on the possibility of life on other planets.
English theorist, philosopher, and statesman Sir Francis _______ (1561-1626) produced a new observation and experimentation theory that advocated the inductive method over the traditional deductive method of reasoning.
Bacon
Bacon also defended the
 empirical method, which supported induction through the collection of data through experimentation; using this method, theories can be reached and tested using repeatable experimentation. Rationalist thinkers challenged Bacon’s empirical method and advocated that human reason alone was sufficient to attain accurate knowledge around the world. Bacon’s most important works are Novuum Organum (1620) and New Atlantis (1627).
Sir Francis Bacon’s _________ reasoning method begins with specific propositions or observations and draws general conclusions from those propositions.
inductive
French philosopher Rene _____ (1596-1650) was a highly influential French philosopher and mathematician who was a major figure in rationalism, reason, and the deductive method; he is known for his saying, “I think, therefore I am,” which served as a foundation of skepticism.
Descartes
Descartes is credited with creating
deductive reasoning, which begins with general principles and uses those to arrive at more particular information and ideas. For example, Descartes stated, “I think, therefore I am,” a general principle asserting his existence; Descartes then used this principle of his existence to arrive at other more specific principles regarding human abilities. Descartes also invented the Cartesian coordinate system, which founded analytical geometry by connecting algebra and geometry.
Frenchman Blaise ______ (1623-1662) made important contributions to math and science in the Scientific Revolution, including inventing a calculating machine, the theory of chance and probability, conic sections in geometry, and observations into hydrostatics and atmospheric pressure; later in life, he turned to a Catholic reform movement known as Jansenism, which emphasized faith over reason, human depravity, and the need for God’s grace.
Pascal
In his collection of notes, known as Pensées (Thoughts),
Pascal argued that reason alone was not sufficient for comprehending the extent of human experience. In addition, Pascal’s Wager is a method of reasoning that applies the decision theory to belief in God. As a result of a long battle with illness and troubled with the absence of God in the new emerging world views, Pascal turned to Jansenism. Pascal believed that religion and science could exist in harmony.
____ ____ (1578-1657) was an English physician who is credited with correctly describing the role of the heart in the circulatory system, findings that were published in his book On the Motion of the Heart.
William  Harvey
Similarly, Spanish physician Michael Servetus
made important contributions to medicine through his studies of the pulmonary circulatory system. Belgian physician Andreas Aesalius (1514-1564) describes his findings from human cadaver and animal dissections in his book On the Structure of the Human Body (1543). Overall, the new reliance on human reasoning led scientists to study the world and report new findings, ones that often contradicted the old authorities.
“If I have seen further than other men, it is because I have stood on the shoulders of giants.”

In this quote, which was spoken by Sir Isaac Newton, the primary “giant” referred to is:
Galileo
Newton, president of the Royal Society and scientist during the Enlightenment, credited his discoveries to the prior work of
Galileo, Bacon, Copernicus, and others. Newton and other Enlightenment scientists used reasoning, mathematics, and observation to investigate science.
______, a belief system that arose from Isaac Newton’s natural law theories, became known as the “religion of the Enlightenment” and postulated that God was a master clockmaker who created an ideal universe and then stepped away and allowed the world to run without interference; this belief was embraced by many intellectuals during the Enlightenment.
Deism
The ideas of separation of powers among three branches of government (legislative, judicial, and executive) in the U.S. Constitution came largely from French Philosopher Baron de Montesquieu’s work _________ who argued that natural laws presided over politics.
The Spirit of the Laws      
The Enlightenment Age of Reason was embodied in the French writer __________ (1694-1778), who was known for his strong opposition to censorship, organized religion, and bigotry, instead, he/she pushed for civil liberties, social reform, toleration, and freedom.
Voltaire
Another work by Voltaire, Treatise on Toleration
(1763) presents the view that “all men are brothers under God,” which was an incredibly modern view on religious freedom and toleration in Voltaire’s day. Voltaire, a Deist, was also skeptical and critical of the institution of the Church and of God himself.
Voltaire’s most famous novel, _______ (Optimism) (1759) is a satirical work that exploits the horrors of the world and the shortcomings of society in the 18th century and encourages readers to employ Enlightenment ideas in order to improve the world.
Candide
Voltaire was imprisoned
several times for his progressive ideas, presented in Candide.
French philosophical Enlightenment writer ________, who made the famous quote, “Ecrasez l’infame!” (“Crush the infamous thing”), which referred to abolishing bigotry, rigid religious traditions, and oppressive governments, sparked the Age of Revolution in western societies.
Voltaire
Along with Jean le Rond d’Alembert, Enlightenment thinker Denis ______(1713-1784) co-edited the Encyclopedia, a twenty-eight volume work that complied the work of many philosophes and became a valuable compilation of the social and political ideals of many Enlightenment thinkers.
Diderot
In this Encyclopedia, Diderot
attacked certain religious beliefs and superstitions in the church and promoted religious tolerance, political freedoms, and overall ways to improve society, all ideas that stemmed from reason and scientific discoveries.
French salon owner Paul-Henri Thiry, Baron d’__________ (1723-1789), was an atheist who denied the existence of God in his writing System of Nature.
Holbach
Baron d’Holbach also contributed to
Diderot’s Encyclopedia. Salons were places where noble thinkers and writers met to discuss philosophy.
In his book Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality, enlightenment philosopher _______ (1712-1778) argued that man is basically moral and good, but has been corrupted by society.
Rousseau
Rousseau is also known for his description of the
“noble savage,” an individual who has not been corrupted by society’s influences and is viewed as more worthy and noble than an individual who has been produced through traditional, civilized upbringing.
French Enlightenment philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau
, whose writings influenced the U.S. Constitutional framers, believed that legitimate government comes through a “_______ ________,” which is formed according to the “general will,” the majority consent of the people who are naturally good and guided by the good of society as a whole.
French Enlightenment philosopher Jean Jacques Rousseau, whose writings influenced the U.S. Constitutional framers, believed that legitimate government comes through a “_______ ________,” which is formed according to the “general will,” the majority consent of the people who are naturally good and guided by the good of society as a whole.
social contract
Rousseau’s famous work Social Contract
contains the well-known quote: “But human nature does not go backward, and we never return to the times of innocence and equality, when we have once departed from them.” Social Contract also contains the famous quote: “man is born free, but he is everywhere in chains”; this quote reflects Rousseau’s belief that society’s emphasis on property ownership and social classes causes inequality and social injustices (Rousseau did not support property ownership rights like John Locke did). The “general will” was a central concept described in Rousseau’s work Social Contract (1762); this concept was used to describe the best way to govern a society, governing through the total of that society’s highest aspirations, those who seek out the good of all.
The philosophy of Enlightenment figure John Jacques Rousseau inspired which of the following? (Check all that apply.)
  Education and child-rearing reform Anti-slavery movements French Revolution and American Revolution Romanticism
Romanticism: Rousseau argued that man was
corrupted by society and that man would do well to escape the class system, and other restraining inequalities in society, and live in harmony with nature.
Revolution and anti-slavery movements: Rousseau believed that man should strive toward self-determination and freedom and live under self-prescribed laws, not the restraining rigid order of society; these beliefs sparked the French Revolution, as well as revolutions in various European colonies and anti-slavery movements.
Education and child-rearing reform: in his book Emile, Rousseau rejects traditional education and rigid discipline views and describes education and parenting systems that nurture the good that is naturally in a child in order to prevent the naturally good child from being corrupted by the evils in society.
Eighteenth century French philosopher Rousseau was exiled from France for his radical book ______, which rejects traditional educational views and describes an education system that fosters the good that is naturally in a child in order to prevent the naturally good child from being corrupted by the evils in society.
Emile
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