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The individual microscopic filaments that make up most of a multicellular fungus are:
Hyphae
Microscopic reproductive cells produced by most fungi are:
Spores
The fungi that are referred to as "primitive fungi" are:
Chytridiomycetes
Fungi that can live only in mycorrhizal association with roots of plants may be placed into a phylum named:
Glomeromycota
Zygospores are formed when two haploid hyphae fuse. Zygospores are which of the following?
Diploid
Associations of fungi and plant roots are called:
Mycorrhizae
Valley fever is caused by:
Coccidioides immitis
A disease-causing fungus found in bird droppings is called:
Histoplasma capsulatum
Chytridiomycetes produce enzymes that digest cellulose, chitin, and similar molecules. These fungi are contributing to the decline of amphibians world-wide through what mechanism?
By digesting keratin in the frog's skin
Which of the following is a difference between how a frog and Chytridiomycetes obtain energy?
Frogs ingest their food, while Chytridiomycetes secrete digestive enzymes
Zygospores are formed by the fusion of two haploid nuclei. They then go through meiosis to form spores. Spores are which of the following?
Haploid
Sometimes if a person takes an antibiotic to treat a bacterial infection, the yeast Candida can grow out of control and cause a vaginal or intestinal infection. What is the best explanation for this observation?
There are fewer bacteria present to compete with the yeast
A lichen is made up of which two species?
A fungi and an algae
Which is the best description of the mutual benefit to both species found in a lichen?
The autotroph provides energy and the heterotroph prevents dehydration
The leaf-cutter ants of Central America use leaves as food to cultivate the basidiomycete Lepiota in special underground chambers. Streptomyces bacteria coat parts of the ants' cuticles and secrete a potent antibiotic that kills an ascomycete that attacks the cultivated fungus. The relationship between the ants and Lepiota is which of the following?
Mutualism
The leaf-cutter ants of Central America use leaves as food to cultivate the basidiomycete Lepiota in special underground chambers. Streptomyces bacteria coat parts of the ants' cuticles and secrete a potent antibiotic that kills an ascomycete that attacks the cultivated fungus. Lepiota must do which of the following?
Secrete enzymes to digest cellulose
The leaf-cutter ants of Central America use leaves as food to cultivate the basidiomycete Lepiota in special underground chambers. Streptomyces bacteria coat parts of the ants' cuticles and secrete a potent antibiotic that kills an ascomycete that attacks the cultivated fungus. Lepiota is most closely related to which of the following?
The ant, because it is a multicellular heterotroph
The organization of the spores would make Neurospora crassa useful for studying which biological process?
Crossing over during meiosis
The fungus Arthrobotrys anchonia, a carnivorous fungus that forms sacs containing eight spores, belongs to the:
Ascomycota
About 80% of all land plants, including grasses, shrubs, and trees, form mycorrhizae. Mycorrhizae are which of the following?
Mutualistic associations between fungi and plant roots
An endophyte absorbing nutrients and water from a live cacao leaf is which of the following?
A heterotroph
Unlike the plant cells, fungal cells lack which of the following?
Chloroplasts
In figure 19.22 what was the dependent variable?
The percent of the leaf area damaged
In figure 19.22, did the age of the leaf at the time of treatment affect the ability of endophytes to protect the plants?
No, the endophytes could protect the plants if applied to young or old leaves
When a haploid spore germinates it goes through mitosis forming hyphae. The resulting hyphae would be which of the following?
Haploid
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