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Adaptive Immunity
Protection that provides a specific reaction to each invading antigen and has the unique ability to remember the antigen that caused the attack. The adaptive immune system is composed of highly specialized cells and tissues, including the thymus, the spleen, bone marrow, blood and lymph. It includes both humoral (B) and cell mediated (T) immunity
Allergen
When symptoms of allergy occur, antigen is referred to as allergen - a substance that can produce a hypersensitivity reaction in the body but may not be inherantly harmful.
Anaphylactic shock / Anaphylaxis
An acute and potentially fatal hypersensitivity reaction to an allergens such as : venom, drugs: pcn/ aspirin, contrast media/ dyes, insect stings :bees/ wasps, foods : eggs, shellfish, peanuts, latex, vaccines
Antigen
A substance recognized by the body as foreign that can trigger an immune response. B cells trigger the production of antibodies and proliferate a response to a particular antigen.
Attenuated
The process of weakening the virulence of a disease organism as in altered vaccines or toxoids to reduce there power without affecting their ability to stimulate the production of antibodies.
Autoimmune/autoimmunity
Immune response (autoantibodies or cellular immune response) to ones own tissues. An immune attack on the self and result from the failure to distinguish \"self \" protein from \"foreign \" protein.
Autologous
Pertaining to a tissue occurring naturally and derived from the same individual. It is the best method for preventing transfusion rejection by tranfusing ones own blood for replacement therapy (frozen for up to 3 years or given w/I a few weeks of donation.
Cellular Immunity / Cell-mediated immunity
The mechanism of acquired immunity characterized by the dominant role of small T cells, results when T cells are activated by an antigen.
Humoral Immunity
One of the two forms of immunity that respond to antigens such as bacteria and foreign tissue, is mediated by the B cells.
Hypersensitivity
An abnormal condition characterized by an excessive reaction to a particular stimulus. These disorders are believed to be caused by a genetic defect that allows increased production of immunoglobulin E (IgE ; humoral antibody) with the release of histamine and other mediators from mast cells and basophils.
Immunity
The quality of being insusceptible to or unaffected by a particular disease or condition. There are 2 major classifications : Innate (natural) / adaptive (acquired)
Immunization
A process by which resistance to an infectious disease is induced or increased.
Immunocompetence
When the immune system responds appropriately to a foreign stimulus, the body\'s integrity is maintained.
Immunoincompetence is when the immune response is too weak or too vigorous, homeostasis is disrupted, causing a malfunction I the system.
Immunodeficiency
An abnormal condition of the immune system in which cellular or humoral immunity is inadequate and resistance to infection is decreased, recurrent or chronic infection. Impairment of one or more immune mechanisms : 1. phagocytosis, 2. humoral response, 3. cell-mediated response, 4. complement, 5. a combined humoral and cell mediated deficiency.
Immunogen
When immunity results, antigen is referred to as immunogen, any agent or substance capable of provoking an immune response or producing immunity.
Immunology
The study of the immune system
Immunosuppressive therapy
The administration of agents that significantly interfere with the immune systems ability to respond to angenic stimulation by inhibiting cellular and humoral immunity.
Immunotherapy / Desensitization
A special treatment of allergic responses that administers increadingly large doses of the offending allergen to gradually develop immunity.
Innate Immunity / Natural Immunity
The body\'s first line of defense, provides physical and chemical barriers to invading pathogens and protects against the external environment. It is composed of the skin and mucous membranes, cilia, stomach acid, tears, saliva, sebaceous glands, and secretins and flora of the intestine and vagina.
Lymphokine
One of the chemical factors produced and released by T lymphocytes that at track macrophages to the sight of infection or inflammation and prepare them for an attack.
Plasmapheresis
Removal of plasma that contains components causing or thought to cause disease. Also called plasma exchange because when plasma is removed, it is replaced by substitution fluids such as saline or albumin.
Proliferation
Reproduction or multiplication of similar forms.
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