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- A chemical compound posessing both hydrophilic and lipophilic properites.
-Molecules especially suited for components of membranes
Ampiphile/ Ampiphatic
Formed by the liver by a transformation from glucose
The products from glycolysis are
1- pyruvate
2- two molecules of ATP
3- inorganic phosphate
4- Water
Glycolosis occurs in the ___
the fluid portion of living cells
The formation of ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate using the energy released from the decay of high energy phosphorylated compounds as opposed to using the energy from diffusion
Substrate Level Phosphorylation
Anaerobic respiration including the process of glycolosys, the reduction of pyruvate to ethanol or lactic acid, and the oxidation of the NADH to the NAD
Respiration requiring oxygen
Aerobic Respiration
Where glycolosys occurs if the cell is able to use Oxygen
Matrix of the Mitochondria
A coenzyme that transfers two carbons to the 4-carbon oxaloacetic acid to begin the Krebs Cycle
Acetyl CoA
This process produces
-is also called they citric acid cycle
Krebs Cycle
Explain the Electron Transport Chain
the chain itself is a series of proteins in the inner memberane of the mitochondiron. The first protein oxidizes NADH by acceptin its high energy electrons. Electrons are then passed down and protons are pumped into the intermembrane space for each NADh. This causes a proton gradient called the proton motive force which propels protons through ATP synthase to manufacture ATP.
Adenine and guanine are two ring structures called
Cytosine and thymine are single ring structures called
Ribosomes are manufactured in the
Protein elongation moves in an order through "sites" in the ribosomes, what are the sites and what happens in each?
A-site- a tRNA with a coded amino acid binds to this site then moves to the
P-site where the amino acid transferred to the forming polypeptide. The tRNA is then moved to the
E-site where it waits to get kicked out into the cytosol by a following tRNA.
a base pair mutatation that occurs in the amino coding sequence of a gene
-may or may not have serious effects on the protein
Missense mutation
A nonsense mutation is
any mutation that causes the coding for a stop codon prematurely in polypeptide synthesis
The four stages of the lifecycle of the cell
The growth Phase ( G1, S (synthesis), G2, Mitosis or meiosis, and cytokenisis
In the cell life cycle G1, S, and G can be collectively called
Describe the G1 phase of a cell
The cell has just split and begins to grow in size producing new organelles and proteins. RNA synthesis is very active. The cell must continue to grow buntil it reaches the appropriate size to start S.
Describe the S phase of acell
the cell devotes most of its energy to replicating DNA
Describe the G2 phase of a cell
The cell prepares to divide. Cellular organelles continue to duplcate. MPF (mitosis promoting factor) gets high enough the cell enters mitosis
The nuclear division of a cell without genetic change
What happens in Prophase
Cromatin condenses into chromosomes. Centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell.
A group of proteins located near the center of a chromosome
This is when chromosomes align along the equator of the cell
What happens in Anaphase
sister chromatids split at the centromere and move towards opposite ends of the cell. Cytokenisis may begin toward the end.
the acutal separation of the cellular cytoplasm due to constriction of microfilaments about the center of the cell
The nuclear memberane refoms folowed bey the reformation fo the nucleolus. chromosomes decondense.
The failure of a chromosome to split during anaphase I or II
The most basic way to show a molecule structure including bonds and lone pair electrons
Lewis dot structure
The handedness of an atom like the right hand compared to the left
Molecules that are exactly the same as their reflections
Achiral Molecules
Any C is chiral when it is bonded to
Four different substituents
When a chiral molecule with the lowest priority group to the back decreases in priority order clockwise the molecule has a chiral absolute configuration of
R Rectus Right
When a chiral molecule with the lowest priority group to the back decreases in priority order counter-clockwise the molecule has a chiral absolute configuration of
S Sinister Left
If a molecule configuration differs only by one substituant and the other substituents are oriented identically about the carbons the molecules have the same
Relative configuration
When plane polarized light passes through this compound and its orentation of electric field is rotated it is
Optically Active
Two molecules with the same molecular formula and the same bond to bond connectivity but are not the same compound are
These molecules have the same molecular formula, bond to bond connectivity, are mirror images of eachother but are not the same molecule
Enantiomers (ant in a mirror)
When enantiomers are mixed together in equal concentrations the resulting mixture is called
Racemic, a racemic mixutre
These molecules hav ethe same molecular formula, have the same bond to bond connectivity, are not mirror images of eachother, and are not the same compound.
Molecules with the substituents on the same side up or down on opposite sides of a double bond and have a dipole moment are
Molecules with the substituents on the opposite sides up or down on opposite sides of a double bond that do not have a dipole moment are
This in Cis-molecules produces higher energy levels resulting in higher heats of combustion
Steric hindrance
If the higher priority substituent for each carbon exists on the opposite sides of a molecule the molecule is labeled
E for Entegen Opposite
If the higher priority substituent for each carbon exists on the opposite sides, the molecule is labeled
Z for Zusammen
When a molecule has two chrial centers that offset eachother creating an optically inactive molecule it is called a
Meso Compound
Diastereomers that differ at only one chiral carbon are called
If a ring closure occurs at the epimetric cargon, two possible diastereomers may be formed called
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