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programmed behavior--> biological basis of behavior
something such as an object, picture, written word, sound, or particular mark that represents something else by association, resemblance, or convention. For example, a red octagon may stand for "STOP".
culture shock
refers to the anxiety and feelings (of surprise, disorientation, uncertainty, confusion, etc.) felt when people have to operate within a different and unknown cultural or social environment, such as a foreign country. It grows out of the difficulties in assimilating the new culture, causing difficulty in knowing what is appropriate and what is not. This is often combined a dislike for or even disgust (moral or aesthetical) with certain aspects of the new or different culture
Tendency to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture.Entails the belief that one's own race or ethnic group is the most important and/or that some or all aspects of its culture are superior to those of other groups.
Term for the behavioural expectations and cues within a society or group. They have been defined as "the rules that a group uses for appropriate and inappropriate values, beliefs, attitudes and behaviors
identify those objects, conditions or characteristics that members of the society consider important
"heartland", a foundation of a major culture
Environmental Determinism
is the view that the physical environment, rather than social conditions, determines culture. Those who believe this view say that humans are strictly defined by stimulus-response (environment-behavior) and cannot deviate.
Cultural Determinism
belief that the culture in which we are raised determines who we are at emotional and behavioral levels. This supports the theory that environmental(nurturing/culture) influences dominate who we are instead of biologically inherited traits.
Cultural Relativism
principle that an individual human's beliefs and activities should be understood in terms of his or her own culture
Nature vs Nurture
debates concern the relative importance of an individual's innate qualities ("nature", i.e. nativism, or innatism) versus personal experiences ("nurture", i.e. empiricism or behaviorism) in determining or causing individual differences in physical and behavioral traits.
Characteristics of Culture
Cultures around the world share four common characteristics: culture is shared, it is learned, it is based on symbols, and it is integrated.
The seven original culture hearths are: 1) The Nile River Valley 2) The Indus River Valley 3) The Wei-Huang Valley 4) The Ganges River Valley 5) Mesopotamia 6) Mesoamerica 7) West Africa These regions are considered culture hearths because such things as religion, the use of iron tools and weapons, highly organized social structures, and the development agriculture started and spread from these areas.
Cultural Diffusion
Cultural diffusion is the term used to describe the spread of cultural ideas from the Core (in the case of culture regions) and the culture hearth. There are three methods of cultural diffusion.
Types of Cultural Diffusion
* direct diffusion and occurs when two distinct cultures are very close together *Forced diffusion or expansion diffusion is the second method of cultural diffusion and takes place when one culture defeats another and forces its beliefs and customs onto the conquered people * indirect diffusion. This type happens when cultural ideas are spread through a middleman or even another culture
Cultural Ecology
studies the relationship between a given society and its natural environment, the life-forms and ecosystems that support its lifeways.
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