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What are the four chambers of the Heart?
Right Atrium, Left Atrium, Right Ventricle, Left Ventricle
Is the right atrium in the upper upper or lower right chamber of the heart?
Upper Right Chamber
How many valves are located within the heart keep the blood moving forward and prevent backflow?
Four
What are the four valves of the heart called?
The heart has two atrioventricular (AV) valves and two semilunar valves
What are the two atrioventricular (AV) valves called and where are they located?
The Tricuspid valve is located between the right atrium and right ventricle. The left Bicuspid, commonly called the mitral valve is located between the left atrium and left ventricle.
What are the two semilunar valves called and where are they located?
The pulmonary semilunar valve is located between the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery. The aortic semilunar valve is located between the left ventricle and the aorta.
Which ventricle of the heart (the right or left) receives deoxygenated blood and pumps blood to the lungs via the pulmonary artery to release carbon dioxide and receive oxygen?
The Right Ventricle
Does the right or left atrium of the heart receive oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary veins?
The left atrium
What is the blood circulation flow?
Superior vena cava/inferior vena cava,right atrium,tricuspid valve,right ventricle,pulmonary semilunar valve, pulmonary artery,capillaries in the lungs, pulmonary veins,left atrium,bicuspid valve, left ventricle,aortic semilunar valve,aorta
What is the delivery of oxygen and nutrient-rich arterial blood to cardiac muscle tissue and the return of oxygen-poor blood from this active tissue to the venous system called?
Coronary Circulation
What is pulmonary circulation?
Pulmonary circulation is the movement of blood from the heart, to the lungs, and back to the heart again.
How many gallons of blood does the heart pump per day?
1000
The heart is located in the chest cavity between the lungs in a region called the what?
The Mediastinum
Name the 3 layers of the heart?
pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium
Which layer of the heart is two-layered and between the two thin membranes is a serous fluid that allows friction-free movement of the heart as it contracts and relaxes and is the outermost layer?
The Pericardium
Which layer of the heart forms the bulk of the heart wall and is the thickest and strongest layer of the heart and is composed of cardiac muscle tissue which is responsible for the pumping of the blood?
The myocardium
Which layer is composed of a thin layer of connective tissue that lines the interior of the heart, the valves, and the larger vessels of the heart?
The endocardium
Which valve connects the right atrium with the right ventricle?
The tricuspid valve
What are the two largest veins that carry blood into the heart called?
The superior vena cava and the inferior vena cava
The cardiac cycle refers to a complete heartbeat. The two atria contract while the two ventricles relax. When the ventricles contract, the two atria relax. What is the phase of contraction called?
The phase of contraction is called systole
The heart sounds (lubb and dubb) are produced by opening or the closure of the valves?
The closure of the valves
The first sound, (long duration and low pitch) heard when the AV valves close is called what?
lubb
What is the medical procedure in which a balloon is used to open a blockage in a coronary (heart) artery narrowed by atherosclerosis (ATH-er-o-skler-O-sis). This procedure improves blood flow to the heart.
Angioplasty
What test monitors the prescribed exertion by the patient such as the use of treadmills or aerobic exercise to evaluate the extent of cardiac capability under extreme circumstances, thus setting the limit of exercise tolerance in cardiac disease?
Cardiac Stress Test
What is an invasive procedure used to visualize the heart's chambers, valves, great vessels, and coronary arteries?
Cardiac Catheterization
What is a graphic study of the electrical activities of the myocardium to determine transmission of cardiac impulses through the muscles/conduction tissue?
ECG
The cardiac cycle refers to a complete heartbeat. The two atria contract while the two ventricles relax. When the ventricles contract, the two atria relax. What is the phase of relaxation called?
The phase of relaxation is called diastole
What is the name of a small portable recorder that is attached to the patient by one to four leads, with a 2-pound tape recorder carried on a belt or shoulder strap operating continuously to record the patterns and rhythms of the patient's heartbeat?
The phase of relaxation is called diastole
What test visualizes the abdominal aorta and the major leg arteries by use of dye injected through the femoral artery and into the aorta where dye visualizes the abdominal aorta and major leg arteries. X-ray visualization is employed.
An Aortogram
What is the action-picture radiograph, allowing observation of movement and is invaluable in pacemaker or intracardial catheter placement.
Fluoroscopy
What is a series of radiographs taken after injection of radiopaque dye into an artery, aiding in diagnosis of vessel occlusion, pooling in various heart chambers, and congenital anomalies?
Angiogram
The second sound, short duration, sharp sound, heard when the semilunar valves close is called what?
dubb
What is telemetry?
Battery-powered transmitters that do not require direct connection of a pt to the oscilloscope. Electrodes are placed on the pt's chest & to a transmitter carried by the pt in a pocket/pouch which sends a signal to a receiver.
What are the coronary arteries?
The "coronary arteries" are the vessels which bring the blood to the heart.
What are the pulmonary arteries?
The pulmonary arteries carry blood from heart to the lungs.
Each ECG has three distinct waves, or deflections: the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave. When the heart contracts, the electrical activity is called what?
Depolarization
The heartbeat is initiated in the sinoatrial (SA) node, which is located in the upper part of the right atrium, just beneath the opening of the superior vena cava, is also known by what name because it regulates the beat of the heart?
The Pacemaker
What is the flow of the IMPULSE PATTERN?
Sinoatrial node ¬ニメ Atrioventricular node ¬ニメ bundle of His ¬ニメ right and left bundle branches ¬ニメ Purkinje fibers
What is the main trunk of the systemic arterial circulation?
The Aorta
What is the node called where impulses pass and are then slowed to allow the atrium to complete contraction and to allow the ventricles to fill?
The Atrioventricular Node
Each ECG has three distinct waves, or deflections: the P wave, the QRS complex, and the T wave. When the heart contracts, the electrical activity is called Depolarization. What is the relaxation phase called?
Repolarization
What is a rapid, regular rhythm originating in the Sinoatrial lobe characterized by a heartbeat of 100 to 150 or more per minute usually caused by exercise, anxiety, fever, shock, medications, caffeine,etc and is not usually caused by a cardiac problem?
Sinus Tachycardia
What is disorganized electrical activity in the atria causing the atria to quiver rather than contract as a unit causing the atria beat chaotically and is characterized by an atrial rate of 350 to 600 beats per minute?
Atrial fibrillation
What is the sudden onset of a rapid heartbeat originating in the atria and is characterized by a pulse rate of 150 to 250 beats per minute?
Supraventricular tachycardia (SVT)
What is AV block?
Atrioventricular block occurs when a defect in the AV junction slows or impairs conduction of impulses from the SA node to the ventricles.
What are are abnormal heart beats that arise from the right or left ventricle.
PVCs Premature ventricular contractions
What is B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP)?
B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) is a neurohormone secreted by the heart in response to ventricular expansion. An elevated BNP greater than 100 pg/mL indicates some heart failure.
What are the three kinds of blood vessels organized for carrying blood to and from the heart?
The arteries, veins, and capillaries.
Are being of the male gender or African-American race, and a positive family history of CAD modifiable or non-modifiable risk factors?
Non-modifiable
What are some major modifiable risk factors for CAD?
Cigarette smoking, hyperlipidemia, stress, obesity, sedentary lifestyle, and hypertension. A diet high in cholesterol and saturated fats contributes to risk factors.
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