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In 1939, Germany’s Third Reich leader Hitler signed a mutual non-aggression pact with Soviet Union’s dictator Stalin in order to ensure that when Germany invaded _______ the Soviet Union would not declare war against Germany.
In signing this pact, Hitler and Stalin publicly declared that they
would not go to war against the other but privately contained a secret pact in which they agreed to split Poland and various other independent eastern European nations between Germany and the U.S.S.R. following Germany’s invasion of Poland. In reality, Hitler had no intention of keeping his end of the pact; he merely wanted to prevent present conflict with the U.S.S.R.
After Germany’s Hitler and the U.S.S.R.’s Stalin signed a nonaggression pact, the Second World War (WWII) broke out on September 1, 1939, when Germany’s tanks, troops, and air force (Luftwaffe) invaded _____ in order to regain former East Prussian territory.
The Versailles Treaty had given land to
Poland that had formerly been occupied by East Prussia (former Germany); Hitler resented this and invaded Poland in order to regain the territory. Soon after Hitler’s initial aggression against Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany and the Soviets invaded Poland from the east; Poland soon fell under Germany’s strong aggression. In addition, the Soviets laid claim to Baltic states, including Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania.
The term _____ refers to the German “lighting war,” which involved the use of massive air strikes and land invasions designed to break through enemy lines and systematically eliminate the enemy.
The Germans used this
 “blitzkrieg” in their 1939 invasion of Poland.
The time of military inactivity between when Poland fell to Germany in October 1938 and when Hitler’s Germany invaded France in April 1940 became known as the _______ or “phony war.”
Soon after Poland fell to Hitler’s war machine,
 Britain and France declared war on Germany but failed to go on the offensive; Hitler halted his aggression for a time, but in reality he was secretly planning future invasions.
Following Germany’s occupation of France, anti-German _____ French troops (under the command of General Charles de Gaulle [1890-1970]) remained in France and fought against the Nazis, who had set up a provisional “puppet” government in France known as the Vichy Regime.
Also of note, following Germany’s conquest of France, the Vichy Regime,
 a Nazi-led provisional government under Frenchman Marshal Philippe Petain, ruled southern France and France’s North African colonies.
Almost 250,000 British forces occupied France at the time of Germany’s invasion. Nearly all of these defeated forces, along with about 100,000 Free French troops, evacuated France from the Belgian coastal town of ____ in 1940.
Boats ferried these troops across the English Channel into Britain. As the troops fled
 France, they left much of their heavy weaponry on the shores at Dunkirk. After this loss of weaponry, Britain was in even greater need for assistance from the United States; however, American public opinion favored staying out of the war.
Although former British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain practiced a policy of appeasement with Hitler, new British Prime Minister ______ rejected any peace terms offered by Hitler and was determined to stand up to Germany’s totalitarian ruler.
Following a “fireside chat” in which President Roosevelt asked the American people to become an “arsenal of democracy” and give Britain what it needed to be successful at war, Congress passed the ______-_____ Act in 1941, which allowed the president to lease, lend, sell, transfer, or exchange military equipment and other supplies to any country whose defense was seen as essential to American security.
Lend Lease
Between the period of 1925 to 1940, American policy on the sale of arms to countries at war had
moved from had transitioned from EMBARGO to CASH AND CARRY to LEND-LEASE. Roosevelt showed that he was committed to helping provide military equipment and supplies to the Allied Powers (Soviet Union, Great Britain), but was not ready to commit the United States to fighting in the Second World War.
In response to the _________ Pact signed by Japan with Germany and Italy (1940), President Roosevelt embargoed airplane fuel and scrap metal shipments to Japan; soon after, when Japan invaded French Indochina in 1941, Roosevelt froze Japanese assets in the U.S.
In August 1941 President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill issued the ___ Charter, a joint statement of war aims and of solidarity between the U.S. and Britain.
Included in the Atlantic Charter were statements of
self-determination, free trade and freedom of the seas, equal access to raw materials, and a new system of joint security. This document served as the origin for the United Nations.
In August 1940, as a result of the British (under Prime Minister Winston Churchill) rejecting any peace terms with the Germans, Hitler carried out the Battle of Britain, which involved a nightly bombing known as “the ____,” directed at Southern England industrial cities.
The Battle of Britain was a German attempt to
gain supremacy of the air space over Britain. Britain held its ground, keeping the Germans from overtaking Britain. The British Royal Air Force used new technology known as "radar" in their efforts to fight back the German air force.
When the British defeated the Germans in the Battle of Britain (1940-1941), which was largely an attempt by the Germany’s Luftwaffe (air force) to achieve air superiority over the British Royal Air Force, Prime Minister _______ stated, “Never—was so much owed by so many to so few.”
This “battle” lasted from 1940 to 1941. British radar gave them the ability to detect the German planes while the Germans
held a larger fleet than the British. In addition, British intelligence deciphered a secret German code using a machine known as "Enigma," and thus gained access to their enemies' tactics. The British victory at the Battle of Britain, as well as the United States joining the Allied Powers, significantly contributed to Hitler’s defeat.
On December 8, ____, as a result of the Japanese surprise bombing of Pearl Harbor, the United States Congress voted to declare war on Japan; in response, Axis Powers Germany and Italy declared war against the U.S. on December 11.
Although the U.S. was expecting a Japanese attack on U.S. military bases in the Pacific, it was
not anticipating an attack on American soil. However, the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941 was not as successful as the Japanese had hoped, due to the following reasons: the naval fleet destruction was not as severe as the Japanese had planned, three American aircraft carriers stationed at Pearl Harbor were not in port at the time of the attack, and oil depots were not bombed.

The United States’ entrance into the war was extremely valuable to the Allied Powers, largely because they contributed manpower, firepower, and a great amount of industrial goods.
No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people, in their righteous might, will win through to absolute victory. I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us. Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger. With confidence in our armed forces, with the un-bounding determination of our people, we will gain the inevitable triumph. So help us God.”

This speech was given by U.S. President ___________ in an effort to gain Congressional approval to declare war against Japan following the bombing of Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941.
Roosevelt’s famous December 8, 1941 speech began with the famous words,
 “Yesterday, December 7, 1941—a date which will live in infamy—the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.”
The turning point of the fighting in the Pacific during WWII that resulted in victory shifting toward the Allied Powers occurred at the Battle of _________ (June 1942), when the U.S. sank four Japanese aircraft carriers at the Battle of Guadalcanal.
The primary ____ Powers in the Second World War included Japan, Germany, and Italy.
The United States under President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Great Britain under Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and the Soviet Union under Premier Josef Stalin, known as the “Big Three,” formed the ____ Powers in World War II.
The alliance between the “Big Three,” (Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill), also known as the “_______ Alliance,” was strengthened in the Second World War by principles such as a mutual patriotic desire to end the aggression of the Axis Powers and a desire to see the unconditional surrender of the Axis Powers.
This Grand Alliance agreed to carry out a U.S.-designed plan of
“Europe First” to defeat Hitler, prior to concentrating on defeating Japan. Another ideal that strengthened the Grand Alliance was the decision to hold off on discussing a peace settlement until decisive victories had been won.
The key strategy used by the U.S. (and British) in the Second World War (known as _____ _______) involved using the majority of men and resources to defeat the Nazi Germans (who were seen as a greater threat) in Europe before fully subduing the Japanese (who were seen as a lesser threat) in the Pacific.
Europe First
The U.S. and British military forces worked to hold back the Japanese in the Pacific while they first concentrated on
defeating the Nazis on the European continent. Then, these Allied forces concentrated full effort on defeating the Japanese. This strategy was used because the U.S. believed that if they divided their efforts equally between Europe and Japan/fighting in the Pacific, that Hitler would be able to defeat Britain and the Soviet Union.
In what became known as Operation _________, Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, with the goal of rapidly defeating Stalin’s Red Army and seizing control of the Soviet Union.
Although the Germans did experience many tactical victories in the Soviet Union, they were
unsuccessful in gaining control of the U.S.S.R.
their 1941 invasion of the Soviet Union, the Nazis were supported by the nation of ________, which had been under Soviet control from 1809-1917.
Although it gained independence from the Soviet Union in 1917 during the Russian Bolshevik Revolution,
Finland was defeated by the Russians in the Russo-Finnish War (1939-1940). Finland made an alliance with Germany in order to gain protection from the Soviets; however, the Finns experienced great defeat during the joint Finnish-German invasion of the Soviet Union during WWII. Finland eventually made peace with and gave concessions to the Soviet Union in 1944, turning against the Germans. This peace agreement prevented Finland from becoming a Communist satellite state of the Soviet Union following the Second World War.
Following German invasion of the Soviet Union in June 1941, Hitler was obsessed with the capture of the city of _____, a location that provided access to the seizure of oil fields and served as a center of rail transportation; the 1942 battle in this city represented the turning point toward Allied victory on the Soviet front since the Germans were unable to gain control.
Both the German army and the Soviets (soldiers and civilians alike) suffered
tremendous casualties as a result of the Germans' unsuccessful attempt to control Stalingrad. The Soviet forces, who were aided by their large manpower reserves, launched a tremendous and valiant defense and were aided by the fact that the Germans had entered the Soviet Union with a great reduction in manpower and supplies due to their previous battles.
In 1942, Germany formally annexed the neutral nation of ________ into the Third Reich; this nation became a founding member of the United Nations in 1946 and abandoned its neutrality and joined NATO in 1949.
Germany had occupied neutral Luxembourg during the First World War. In 1940,
Germany occupied Luxembourg and then annexed the neutral nation in 1942. After having its neutrality violated multiple times, Luxembourg joined the Allied side following the Second World War and abandoned its neutrality.
During the Battle of El ______ (1942) in Egypt, Allied forces led by British general Bernard Montgomery (1887-1976) defeated German field marshal Erwin Rommel (the "desert fox") (1891-1944), resulting in the Allies’ retention of the Suez Canal; this battle was a significant turning point toward Allied victory.
In September ____, following the Allied Powers’ capture of Sicily and control of the Mediterranean, the Italian government deposed Mussolini, declared war on Germany, and Italian troops and civilian fighters known as partisans joined the Allies.
On D-Day, June 6, 1944, over two million American, British, Canadian, and free-French forces with five thousand vessels stormed the beaches of German-controlled Normandy, France, in Operation Overload; this battle is significant because it _____________________. (Check all that apply.)
signaled that Nazi control in Europe was ending
was the largest invasion by sea carried out in all of history
The Germans were surprised by this invasion and were eventually driven out of
France and Belgium. This battle indicated that Nazi domination in Europe was coming to an end.
At the Casablanca and ______ Conferences in 1943, Churchill, Roosevelt, and other leaders of the Allied powers agreed that the war would continue until the “unconditional surrender” of Germany and Japan.
Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin, known as the “Big Three,” met together for the first time at the Tehran conference (1943) to discuss issues related to ending the Second World War, such as the structure of post-war Germany. During this conference, the future political status of the country of _______ was left undecided since Roosevelt and Churchill disagreed with Stalin.
Although Stalin, Roosevelt, and Churchill were allies in the Second World War, their
diplomatic relations during the war proved that they had difficulty settling even basic disagreements, such as the status of post-war Poland.
The Battle of the ____ (December 1944) was the last German offensive against Allied troops in World War II; following this battle, Germans began to retreat on all fronts.
The “bulge” refers to when the
Germans surrounded the Allies’ lines of advance, causing Americans to retreat. However, the Allies prevailed by pushing the Germans back, draining German reserves, and damaging the Luftwaffe (German air force).
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