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The Germans finally surrendered to the Allied Powers on May 8, 1945 after the Battle of _____, in which the Allied Powers carried out massive saturation bombing on the city followed by a ground invasion led by Soviet forces.
Berlin
During this battle, Hitler and many of his men
committed suicide. Throughout the war, American and British forces had carried out massive saturation bombing campaigns in Western Germany. The bombing carried out in the Battle of Berlin (Eastern Germany) further devastated the country and left Germany in ruin. Massive damage was done throughout Germany and the Soviet Union: transportation systems wiped out, numerous towns and cities destroyed, factories leveled, and economies decimated.
The _____ Woods Conference, which was held in New Hampshire, U.S., was an international meeting that established the U.S. dollar as the world’s reserve currency and created the World Bank and International Monetary Fund to assist with the reconstruction of post-World War II Europe.
Bretton
This conference showed international political cooperation similar to the cooperation outlined by
 Britain and the U.S. in the Atlantic Charter of 1941.
Which of the following were provisions set forth in the February 1945 Yalta Conference? (Pick all that apply.)
The Soviet Union would declare war on Japan and, in exchange, receive Japanese territories in Asia Germany would undergo “de-Nazification” and be divided into four different zones (American, Russia, French, and British) that would be based on troop occupations at the end of the warProvisional governments under Soviet influence would be established in Eastern European nations of Hungary, Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Czechoslovakia until free elections could be held in each nation
The United Nations would be established in order to preserve international peace
Following the war, Berlin would be governed by the
 Americans, Russians, French, and British, and each of these nations would control and occupy one of the four zones in Germany. Although certain provisions of this conference (such as the de-Nazification and demilitarization of Germany) were not highly controversial, many others were. For example, Stalin was essentially given a “free hand” to control the states in Eastern Europe that surrounded the Soviet Union. In addition, Stalin was directly given Polish territory. President Roosevelt knew that it would be hard to ensure a noncommunist Eastern Europe, but was willing to make controversial concessions with Stalin in order to guarantee Soviet assistance in the war against Japan.
U.S./Soviet relations deteriorated throughout the course of the war and by the time of the _______ Conference in July 1945, the Soviets had already backed out on their promise to allow people in Soviet-occupied Eastern European nations to carry out their own free elections.
Potsdam
The Allied Powers (U.S. President Truman, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet Premier Josef Stalin) attended the
Potsdam Conference in order to determine, among other post-war related matters, how to handle the defeated enemy, Nazi Germany.
During the conference, United States President Harry Truman made it clear that he did not trust Stalin’s motives. Truman believed that Stalin was intent on annexing a large part of Eastern Europe that had been freed from Nazi control by Soviet forces. In addition, President Truman mentioned that the United States had developed a “powerful new weapon.” Only four days after the end of the conference, President Truman ordered an atomic bomb to be dropped over Hiroshima, Japan, after giving Japan an ultimatum to which they responded with a conditional, but unacceptable, surrender.
President Truman chose to end the war quickly instead of invading Japan; he ordered an atomic bomb to be dropped on the Japanese cities of _______ on August 6 and Nagasaki on August 9, 1945.
Hiroshima
The dropping of these atomic bombs brought forth the
Nuclear Age. Although the U.S. had originally developed nuclear weapons because they had feared that Nazi Germany would develop them first, the U.S. ended up using nuclear weapons against Japan, not Germany.
Which of the following factors contributed to President Truman’s decision to drop atomic bombs on Nagasaki and Hiroshima, Japan, in August 1945? (Pick all that apply.)
Dropping the bombs would end the war quickly and save American and Japanese lives that would have been lost if the U.S. invaded Japan Because Japan had continually refused to stop fighting, the bombing would influence the Japanese government to surrender The U.S. Department of State did not want the Soviet Union to have to attack Japan in order to win the war in the Far East
In deciding to drop the atomic bombs, Truman made a controversial decision. Japan had continually refused to
surrender, in spite of massive bombing campaigns the Allied forces carried out against Japanese cities. The U.S. knew that the atomic bombs would send very strong messages to the Japanese government of their need to end fighting. Truman warned Japan that serious attacks would follow if Japan failed to surrender; Japan ignored Truman’s warnings until the atomic bombs dropped on Japanese cities.
Under the insistence of Emperor _________, the Japanese surrendered on August 14, 1945, which became known as V-J (“Victory in Japan”) Day.
Hirohito
Troops returned home quickly as men and women in uniform and civilians alike
insisted the government “bring the troops home by Christmas.”
Which of the following statements describe the role of women in America (and other nations at war) during the Second World War?
Women were encouraged take temporary employment in traditional male jobs, such as heavy industry and manufacturing
With men deployed overseas, many nations at war carried out huge
propaganda campaigns encouraging women to take industrial/manufacturing jobs to show their patriotism and help with the huge demand for war goods and equipment, such as airplanes. For example, American propaganda depicted “Rosie the Riveter,” a muscular World-War-II-era woman holding a riveting gun. Over ¾ of adult women under 40 worked outside the home during WWII. Following the war, many women sought higher education, remained in the workforce, and branched outside of the traditional roles of mother and homemaker.
During the Second World War, America changed in which of the following ways? (Pick all that apply.)
1Western states experienced rapid industrialization 2Price and wage controls set income limits on Americans’ salaries 3The rights of unionized workers were diminished
4Rationing was used to prevent certain goods from being depleted
In order to have more money to spend on the war, the government
imposed tax increases on Americans and encouraged Americans to use their extra money to purchase war bonds. Price and wage controls placed limits on salaries and prevented prices from spiraling out of control; goods such as gasoline were rationed. In addition, unionized workers’ rights were diminished through the government mandating “no strike” pledge from unions, limiting wage increases for unionized workers, and mandating a 30-day cool off period before striking.
How did the U.S. government prevent inflation from getting out of control during the Second World War? (Pick all that apply.)
Placing limits on wartime wages Selling war bonds Controlling the prices of agricultural goods and rationing consumer goods
War debts threatened to cause hyperinflation if the government did not intervene. The measures to prevent hyperinflation allowed the
U.S. to exit the Second World War with the world’s strongest, largest economy. Other European countries suffered from hyperinflation during and after the war due to massive wartime debt.
During the Second World War, the Allied Powers divided their fighting into two “__________,” one in Europe and one in the Pacific.
theaters
The European theater was further divided into the
Western and Eastern Theaters, with the U.S. and British fighting in Western Europe and the Soviets fighting in Eastern Europe.
During the Second World War, American and Allied troops accomplished which of the following? (Pick all that apply.)
Assisted Allied troops in freeing France Assisted in the freeing of North Africa Drove the Japanese back into the Pacific Helped free Italy from German control
During the Second World War, America was primarily focused on
winning the war; the Jews’ fate was secondary.
The Second World War was caused by which factors?
Failure of the WWI Versailles Treaty to quell the nationalistic desires of many nations All of these Desire of the oppressive rulers in Japan, Italy, and Germany to retaliate against the inequalities
of the First World War peace agreements
Desire of Britain, France, and the U.S., who were recovering from the Great Depression, to avoid
entering another costly war
Appeasement and isolationist policies used by Britain, France, and the U.S. in response to
German and Japanese aggression
Many of the causes of the Second World War originated in issues that were
never resolved following the First World War. Japan, Germany, and Italy all found themselves under oppressive rule following the First World War, and their people had strong nationalistic urges that drove them to desire independence from this oppression. Germany was humiliated in the Treaty of Versailles and made to take responsibility for the war, limit its military, and make costly reparations. The “winners” in the First World War, the U.S., France, and Britain, were caught up in the economic hardships of the Great Depression and wanted to avoid at all costs another expensive war. So, when Germany violated the Versailles Treaty in their pursuit of nationalism, and Britain, France, and the U.S. failed to take action against these violations, the stage was set for war.
Which of the following countries remained neutral throughout the Second World War? (Check all that apply.)
Spain Ireland Sweden
Portugal
Although Belgium attempted to remain neutral, they were invaded by
Germany, who attempted to use Belgium as a way to enter France; as a result, Belgium entered the war on the Allied side. China had been subjected to Japanese aggression in the years prior to the outbreak of WWII; China entered the war on the Allied side after Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. Ireland was the only nation in the British Commonwealth to remain neutral during WWII.
The Scandinavian nation of ______ maintained neutrality throughout the First and Second World Wars, and continues to maintain that status today; this nation is known for its expansive social welfare programs.
Sweden
During the Second World War, which was fought on every major continent other than North and South America, the majority of the nearly 70 million casualties were:
Civilian noncombatants
During the Second World War, the world saw devastation as never before. Many people were
displaced from their homes and became refugees, many fell victim to genocide (state-sponsored mass extermination), and many starved. The heavy-saturation bombing of European cities took the lives of many civilians.
Following the Second World War, why did relations between the United States and the Soviet Union begin to fall apart? (Pick all that apply.)
Roosevelt and Stalin disagreed about how Poland’s government would operate following the war Stalin was determined to gain control of Eastern and Central EuropeThe U.S. and the Soviet Union did not agree on the political arrangement of Europe following the war
Even though the U.S. and the Soviet Union had an alliance that continued through the Second World War and was outlined at the
Yalta Conference in 1945, the U.S. and the Soviets had fundamental differences of opinion regarding the political structure of post-war Europe. Stalin saw Communist Soviet influence expanding into Central and Eastern Europe, while U.S. leadership envisioned the spread of democracy in Europe following the Second World War.
Heinrich ____ (1900-1945) was the leading organizer of the extermination of Europe’s Jews; he was also the commander of the Nazi Schutzstaffel, the “protective force,” or "SS."
Himmler
A specialized unit of the Schutzataffel known as the
Einsatzguppen was responsible for murdering Jewish women, children, and the elderly by shooting. The regular German army, the Wehrmacht, also assisted the SS in various ways, such as gathering Jews for the purpose of containment and/or extermination and transporting the prisoners to death camps.
Nazi leader Hitler referred to the extermination of Europe’s Jews as the ____ ____, known to the rest of the world as the Holocaust.
final solution
The largest death camp was built at _____ in Poland and was responsible for the deaths of approximately 1.6 million Jews, Poles, Gypsies, homosexual males, and Soviet political prisoners.
Auschwitz
Upon arrival to the death camp, prisoners were separated into two groups: those
fit for labor and those who were not. Those who were not fit for labor were killed, often in gas chambers, and those who were fit for work were forced into hard labor and often died or were executed within months. In addition to the prisoners mentioned above, other groups who were sent to death camps and/or targeted for extermination included Christians who aided Jews or refused to follow Nazism, the mentally or physically disabled, and Jehovah’s Witnesses.
Approximately ___ million Jews were killed as a result of the Holocaust.
6
The Nazis also targeted an ethnic group known as the
Slavs (which included Poles, Russians, and others of similar ethnicity) for extermination, calling them untermenschen, “subhumans.”
The _____ War Crimes Trials were a series of trials held in Germany from 1945 to 1949, mostly aimed at trying and prosecuting individuals involved in leadership positions in Nazi Germany and linked to Nazi war crimes.
Nuremberg
Hannah ______ (1906-1975) was a German political theorist and Jewish intellectual who reported the Eichmann trial and eventually wrote the book Eichmann in Jerusalem, in which she coined the phrase the “banality of evil,” meaning that people tend to obey orders and follow the masses without much interest or thinking into the matter.
Arendt
Arendt found Eichmann, a man who managed
 logistics in extermination camps and who escaped to Argentina before being captured and put on trial, to be an ordinary man who was interested in advancing himself through following Nazi policies and orders.
On May 14, 1948, following the end of the Second World War, the nation of _______ was formally declared as an independent state; the United States was the first nation to recognize this new nation.
Israel
The Zionism movement, an international political movement that advocates
Jewish nationalism and the establishment of a homeland for Jews, was formally established in the late nineteenth century and is often associated with the work of Zionism advocate Theodore Herzel (1860-1904). Following the Holocaust, the Zionist Movement experienced renewed interest as Jews who had been dispersed throughout Europe longed for a homeland and often immigrated to present-day Israel.
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