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ABO blood group
Category that includes blood types A, B, AB, and O. Blood types are hereditary. Each blood type has antigens on its erythrocytes and antibodies in the plasma against other blood types.
antibody
Produced by a B cell that becomes a plasma cell. AKA immunoglobulin.
antigen
A protein marker on the cell membrane on an erythrocyte that indicates the blood type. Also, a protein marker on the cell wall of pathogens (bacteria, viruses, and so forth) and cancerous cells that the body recognizes as foreign.
blood
Type of connective tissue that contains plasma and blood cells. The blood transports oxygen, carbon dioxide, nutrients, and waste products of metabolism.

hem/o- = blood
hemat/o- = blood
clotting factors
A series of 12 protein factors that are released either from platelets or injured tissue or are produced by the liver. They activate each other in a series of steps that eventually form fibrin strands that trap erythrocytes and form a blood clot.
coagulation
The formation of a blood clot by platelets and the clotting factors.

coagul/o- = clotting
electrolytes
Chemical elements that carry a positive or negative electrical charge: sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl-), and bicarbonate (HCO3-). They are carried in the plasma.

electr/o- = electricity
erythrocyte
A red blood cell. Erythrocytes contain hemoglobin and carry oxygen and carbon dioxide to and from the lungs and cells of the body.

erythr/o- = red
hemoglobin
Substance in an erythrocyte that binds to oxygen and carbon dioxide. Made of a heme molecule and globin chains.

hem/o- = blood
hemostasis
The cessation of bleeding after the formation of a blood clot.
immune response
Coordinated effort between the blood and the lymphatic system to identify and destroy invading microorganisms or cancerous cells produced within the body
leukocyte
A white blood cell. There are five different types of mature leukocytes: neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, lymphocytes, and monocytes.

leuk/o- = white
lymph
Fluid that flows through the lymphatic system.
lymphatic system
Body system that includes a network of lymphatic vessels, circulating lymph fluid, lymph nodes, the lymphoid organs (thymus, spleen), and lymphoid tissues (tonsils and adenoids, appendix and Peyer's patches). Also includes the blood cells lymphocytes and macrophages.
lymph vessels
Vessels that begin as capillaries carrying lymph, continue through lymph nodes, and empty into the right lymphatic duct or the thoracic duct
lymph nodes
Small encapsulated pieces of lymphoid tissue located along the lymphatic vessels. Lymph nodes filter and destroy invading microorganisms and cancerous cells present in the lymph.
pathogen
Microorganism that causes a disease. Pathogens include bacteria, viruses, protozoa, and other microorganisms, as well as plant cells like fungi or yeast.
plasma
Clear, straw-colored portion of the blood that carries blood cells and contains dissolved substances like proteins, glucose, minerals, electrolytes, clotting factors, complement proteins, hormones, bilirubin, urea, and creatinine.
Rh blood group
Category of blood type. When the Rh factor is present, the blood is Rh positive. Without the Rh factor, the blood is Rh negative.
serum
Fluid portion of the plasma that remains after the clotting factors are activated to form a blood clot.
spleen
Lymphoid organ located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. The spleen destroys old erythrocytes, breaking their hemoglobin into heme and globins. It also acts a storage area for whole blood. Its white pulp is lymphoid tissue that contains B and T lymphocytes.
thrombocyte
Cell fragment that does not have a nucleus. It is active in the blood clotting process. Thrombocytes are also known as platelets.

thromb/o- = thrombus (blood clot)
thrombus
A blood clot.
hemorrhage
Loss of a large amount of blood, externally or internally. Injury to an artery causes a forceful spurting of a large amount of bright red blood.

-rrhage = excessive flow or discharge
pancytopenia
Decreased numbers of all types of blood cells due to failure of the bone marrow to produce stem cells.

pan- = all
cyt/o- = cell
-penia = condition of deficiency
septicemia
Severe bacterial infection of the tissues that spreads to the blood. Both the bacteria and their toxins cause severe systemic symptoms. AKA sepsis or blood poisoning.

septic/o- = infection
anisocytosis
Erythrocytes that are either too large or too small. A macrocyte is abnormally large eryhtrocyte seen in folic acid anemia (folic acid deficiency) and pernicious anemia (vitamin B12 deficiency). A microcyte is an abnormally small erythrocyte seen in iron deficiency anemia.
anemia
The number of erythrocytes in the blood is decreased. This can be due to any of the following reasons:
 
1. Too few erythrocytes are produced because insufficient amounts of amino acids, folic acid, vitamin B6, or viatmin B12.

2. Too few erythrocytes are produced because of disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs have damaged or destroyed the red marrow.

3. Many erythrocytes have been destroyed because of lysis or increased cell fragility.

4. Many erythrocytes have been lost because of hemorrhage, excessive menstruation, or chronic blood loss.

Anemias can be classified by their cause or by the size, shape, and appearance of their erythrocytes. A patient with anemia is said to be anemic.
aplastic anemia
Failure of the bone marrow to produce erythrocytes because it has been damaged by disease, cancer, radiation, or chemotherapy drugs. the total number of erythrocytes is decreased, even though individual erythrocytes are normocytic (normal in size) and normochromic (normal in color).
iron deficiency anemia
Caused by a deficiency of iron in the diet. Also caused by increased loss of iron due to menstruation, hemorrhage, or chronic blood loss. The erythrocytes are microcytic (small in size) and hypochromic (pale in color). Infant formulas include supplemental iron to prevent iron deficiency anemia.
pernicious anemia
Caused by a lack of vitamin B12 in the diet (from animal foods) or a lack of intrinsic factor in the stomach. Can be seen in vegetarians. Untreated, it can cause permanent damage to the nerves. The erythrocytes are abnormally large and very immature (megaloblasts).
sickle cell anemia
Inherited genetic abnormality of an amino acid in hemoglobin. If there is one abnormal amino acid, the patient has sickle cell trait and is a carrier for sickle cell disease but does not have the disease. If there are two abnormal amino acids, the patient has sickle cell disease. Low oxygen levels in the blood cause the erythrocyte to become distorted into a crescent or sickle shape. Sickle cells do not move easily through the capillaries, blocking the flow of blood, causing small clots and pain, particularly in the joints and abdomen. sickle cells are fragile (because they frequently change shape), and they have a shortened life span, which results in anemia.
polycythemia vera
Increased number of eythrocytes due to uncontrolled production by the red marrow. The cause is unknown. The viscosity of the blood increases and the total blood volume is increased. Initial symptoms include dizziness, headache, fatigue, and splenomegaly. Patients are prone to develope blood clots and high blood pressure.
transfusion reaction
Reaction that occurs when a patient receives a blood transfusion with an incompatible blood type. Antibodies in the patient's serum attack antigens on the erythrocytes of the donor blood causing hemolysis of the donor erythrocytes. This is known as a hemolytic reation. Fever, chills, and hypotension occur almost immediately. The patient has flank pain because hemolyzed erythrocytes clog the filtering membrane of the kidneys and cause kidney failure.
acquired immunodeficiency syndrome
Severe infection caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Human immunodeficiency virus belongs to a special category of viruses known as retroviruses. AIDS is primarily a sexually transmitted disease, but is also transmitted by shared needles in drug abusers, accidental needle sticks, exposure to contaminated blood, blood transfusions, and via breast milk from an infected mother to a nursing baby. Initially, AIDS causes fevers, night sweats, weight loss, enlarged lymph nodes, and diarrhea. It takes about three months for the body to develop enuogh antibodies against HIV to give a positive serology test. A patient with HIV antibodies is said to be HIV positive. Like all viruses, HIV cannot reproduce itself. It must enter a body cell and use the cell's DNA to replicate itself. The body cell is destroyed as the new viruses are released. HIV uses helper T cells (CD4 lymphocytes) to reproduce. As large numbers of helper T cells are destroyed, the action of suppressor T cells (CD8 lymphocytes) is unopposed. This suppresses the normal immune response and leaves the patient immunocompromised and defenseless against infection and cancer. A diagnosis of AIDS is made when the CD4 cell count is below 200 (normal is 500-1500 cells/mm3) and there is an opportunistic infection such as Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, oral or esophageal candidiasis, cytomegalovirus retinitis, or unusual cancers like Kaposi's sarcoma. AIDS wasting syndrome is characterized by weight loss and loss of muscle mass and strength.
mononucleosis
Infectious disease caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Symptoms include lymphadenopathy, fever, and fatigue. Often called "the kissing disease" because it commonly affects young adults and is transmitted through contact with saliva that contains the virus.
deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

(deep venous thrombosis)
A thrombus (blood clot) in one of the deep veins of the lower leg, often after surgery or in patients on bedrest. Lack of exercise causes blood to pool in the veins (venous stasis) and form a clot. Sometimes a thrombus becomes an embolus that travels through the circulatory system until it becomes trapped and blocks the blood flow in a small artery of the brain, heart, or lungs. This obstruction is known as an embolism.
hemophilia
Inherited genetic abnormality of a gene on the X chromosome. This causes a lack or deficiency of a specific clotting factor. When injured, hemophiliac patients continue to bleed for long periods of time. Minor injuries produce large hematomas undr the skin and bleeding inside body cavities, joints and organs. The abnormal gene is carried by a female  on the X chromosome, but she does not have the disease. If a male inherits the abnormal gene, it causes hemophilia. A patient who has hemophilia is known as a hemophiliac. Hemophilia A is due to a lack of clotting factor VIII and is the most common type of hemophilia. Hemophilia B is caused by a lack of factor IX. Hemophilia C is caused by a lack of factor XI.
thrombocytopenia
Deficiency in the number of thrombocytes due to exposure to radiation or chemicals in drugs that damage stem cells in the bone marrow. It also occurs when leukemia cells take over the red marrow and crowd out the stem cells that produce thrombocytes. Also, some patients have antibodies that destroy their own thrombocytes. This causes small pinpoint hemorrhages (petechiae) and larger hemorrhages (ecchymoses) or bruises on the skin. Idiopathic thrombocytopenia purpura has no identifiable cause.
lymphadenopathy
Enlarged lymph nodes. Lymph nodes in the neck, axillae, and groin can be easily felt of they are enlarged. A sore throat will cause the lymph nodes in the neck to enlarge. A severe infection or cancer will cause the lymph nodes in that area to become enlarged.

lymph/o- = lymph; lymphatic system
lymphedema
Generalized swelling of an arm or leg that occurs after surgery when a chain of lymph nodes has been removed. Tissue fluid in that area cannot drain into the lymphatic vessels at the normal rate, and this causes edema.
splenomegaly
Enlargement of the spleen, felt on palpitation of the abdomen. Can be caused by mononucleosis, Hodgkin's disease, hemolytic anemia, polycythemia vera, or leukemia.
blood type
Blood test that determines the blood type (A, B, AB, or O) and Rh factor (positive or negative) of the patient's blood. Type and crossmatch is done when a patient needs to receive a blood transfusion. The donor's blood was typed when it was stored in the blood bank. The patient's (recipient's) blood is then typed. The patient's plasma is mixed with the donor's red blood cells (crossmatching). If the donor's red blood cells clump together (agglutination), the blood types are not compatible.
complete blood count (CBC)  with differential
Group of blood tests that are performed automatically by machine to determine the number, type, and characteristics of various cells in the blood.

erythrocytes (commonly known as red blood cell count) = (red blood cells, RBCs) Number (millions) per cubic millimeter (m/cmm)

hematocrit (HTC) = Percentage of RBCs

hemoglobin (Hgb) = Amount (grams) per deciliter (g/dL)

red blood cells indicies = mean cell volume (MCV) - average volume of one RBC
mean cell hemoglobin (MCH) - Average weight of hemoglobin in one RBC
mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC) - Average concentration of hemoglobin in one RBC

leukocytes (commonly known as white blood cell count, WBCs) = Number (thousands) per cubic millimeter (k/cmm)

white blood cell differential - neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, basophils= Percentage of each type of WBC per 100 WBCs

thrombocytes (platelets) = Number (thousands) per cubic millimeter (k/cmm)
prothrombin time (PT)
Blood test to evaluate the effectiveness of the anticoagulant drug Coumadin. A prolonged (rather than normal) PT would be expected. The international normalized ratio (INR) reports the PT value in a standardized way, regardless of what laboratory performed the PT test.
blood chemistries
Blood test used to determine the levels of various chemicals in the blood. These include electrolytes, albumin, total protein, ALT, AST, BUN and creatinine, bilirubin, glucose, LDH, total cholesterol, uric acid, and alkaline phosphatase. A Chem-20 includes 20 individual chemistry tests performed at the same time. Also called a metabolic panel.
ELISA
This HIV test can also be positive if the patient has antibodies against lupus erythematosis, Lyme disease, or syphilis. ELISA stands for enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.
MonoSpot test
Rapid test that uses the patient's serum mixed with horse erythrocytes. If the patient has infectious mononucleosis, heterophil antibodies in the patient's serum will cause the horses erythrocytes to clump. Also called heretophil antibody test.
bone marrow aspiration
Procedure to remove red bone marrow from the posterior iliac crest of the hip bone. This is done in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, and anemia to examine the different stages of development (stem cell to mature cell) of the blood cells. It is also done to harvest bone marrow froma healthy donor to give to a patient who needs a bone marrow transplantation.
phlebotomy
Medical procedure for drawing a sample of venous blood into a vacuum tube. The vacuum tubes have different colored rubber stoppers that indicate what additive or anticoagulant is in the tube; this determines what blood test can be performed on the blood in that tube. Also known as venipuncture.

phleb/o- = vein

ven/i- = vein
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