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Describe the following terms pertaining to motion:
Inertia
Acceleration
Speed
Velocity
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Inertia
The willingness of an object to remain at rest or to continue in motion unless acted upon by an outside force.
Acceleration
The rate of change of the speed and/or velocity of matter with time.
Speed
The rate of movement or motion in a given amount of time.
Velocity
The quickness or speed of an object in a given time and direction.
Define the following laws of motion:
Newton's First Law
Newton's Second Law
Newton's third Law
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Newton's First Law
(inertia) an object at rest will remain at rest, or an object in motion will continue in motion at the same speed and in the same direction, until acted upon by an outside force.
Newton's Second Law
(force) If an object moving with uniform speed is acted upon by an external force, the change of motion, or acceleration, will be directly proportional to the amount of force and inversely proportional to the mass of the object being moved.
Newton's Third Law
(action and reaction) for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.
Define Bernoullie's Principle.
his phenomenon applies to the lift produced by the wing of an airplane, i.e., an airfoil. The airfoil is designed so that the air moves more rapidly over its upper surface than its lower surface, thereby decreasing pressure 
above the airfoil. At the same time, the impact of the air on the lower surface of the airfoil increases the pressure below the airfoil. 
This difference between the decreased pressure above and the increased pressure below produces lift.
Discuss the following weather warnings and their effect on naval aviation:
Wind Warning
Tropical cyclone warnings
Thunderstorm/tornado warnings
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Wind Warning:
Small craft
Gale
Storm
Destructive weather poses a significant threat to personnel, aircraft, ships, installations, and other resources.
Small Craft: harbor/inland waters 33 knots or less.
Gale: harbor, inland waters and ocean areas 34-47 knots
Storm:harbor, inland waters and ocean areas 48 knots or greater.
Tropical Cyclone Warnings:
Tropical depression
Tropical storm
Hurricane/typhoon

Tropical cyclones are systems of cyclonically rotating winds characterized by a rapid decrease in pressure and increase in winds toward the center of the storm. Tropical depression: land, harbor, inland waters and ocean areas 33 knots or less.
Tropical storm: land, harbor, inland waters and ocean areas 34-63 knots.
Hurricane/typhoon: land, harbor, inland waters and ocean areas 64 knots or greater.
Thunderstorm/tornado warnings:
Thunderstorm warning
Severe thunderstorm warning
Tornado warning
Thunderstorms produced by a cumulonimbus cloud.
Tornado rotating column of air winds reaching from 100-250 knots.

Thunderstorm warning: within 3 miles.
Severe thunderstorm warning: gusts to 50 knots or greater, hail 3/4 or greater in area.
Tornado warning: sited or detected by RADAR in or adjacent to the area.
Describe the following aerodynamic terms:
Lift
Weight
Drag
Thrust
Longitudinal Axis
Lateral Axis
Vertical Axis
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Lift
force that acts, in an upward direction, to support the aircraft in air.
Weight
Force of gravity acting downward ont he aircraft and everything on the aircraft.
Drag
Force that tends to hold an aircraft back. Caused by the disruption of the air about the wings, fuselage or body, and all protruding objects on the aircraft.
Thrust
Force developed by the aircraft's engine, and it acts in the forward direction.
Longitudinal Axis
Line running down the center of the aircraft between the nose and the tail. Axis in which roll occurs.
Lateral Axis
Line running parrallel to the wings and about which pitch occurs.
Vertical Axis
line running from the top to the bottom of the aircraft. Axis in which yaw occurs.
State the three primary movements of aircraft about the axis.
Pitch:lateral axis

Yaw:vertical axis

Roll:longitudinal axis
Identify and state the purpose of the primary flight controls for:
Fixed Wing Aircraft
Rotary Wing Aircraft
Fixed wing:
ailerons-longitudinal axis
elevators-lateral axis
rudder-vertical axis
Rotary wing:
collective stick-Pitch(up and down)
cyclic stick-forward, aft, side to side (direction)
foot pedals-lateral control
State the purpose of the following flight control surfaces:
Flap
Spoiler
Speed Brakes
Slats
Horizontal Stabilizer
Vertical Stabilizer
Tail rotor
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Flap
Gives the aircraft extra lift. to reduce the landing speed.
Spoiler
Used to decrease wing lift.
Speed Brakes
Used for reducing the speed of the aircraft.
Slats
At low airspeeds, improves the lateral control handling characteristics.
Horizontal Stabilizer
Provides stability of the aircraft about its lateral axis. (longitudinal stability)
Vertical Stabilizer
Maintains the stability of the aircraft about its vertical axis. (directional stability)
Tail Rotor
Counteracts the torque action of the main rotor by producing thrust in the opposite direction. also controls the yawing action of the helicopter.
Explain the term angle of attack.
the angle at which a body, such as an airfoil or fuselage, meets a flow of air.
Explain the term autorotation.
A method of allowing a helicopter to land safely from altitude without using engine power by making use of the reversed airflow up through the rotor system to reduce the rate of descent.
State the components of a basic hydraulic system.
Reservoir-hold a supply
Pump- Provide a flow
Tubing-transmit the fluid
Selector Valve-direct the flow
Actuating Unit-fluid to mechanical.
Describe and explain the purpose of the main components of landing gear.
Shock Strut Assembly: absorbs the shock.
Tires: allows the a/c to roll and provide traction during takeoff and landing.
Wheel Brake Assembly: Slow and stop the a/c.
Retracting and Extending Mechanism: Used to electrically or hydraulically extend and retract the landing gear.
Side Struts and Supports: provides lateral strength/support for the landing gear.
State the safety precautions used when servicing aircraft tires on aircraft.
Always approach the tires from fore and aft. When inflating, stand off tot he side. Deflate when removing from the aircraft.
State the 5 basic sections of a jet engine.
Intake:air to enter engine
Compressor:provides high-pressure air to combustion chamber.
Combustion Chamber: where fuel enters and combines with compressed air.
Turbine section: drives the compressor by extracting some of the energy and pressure from the combustion gases.
Exhaust cone: rear of engine and eliminates turbulence int eh emerging jet giving velocity.
Describe the following Engine systems:
Turbojet
Turboshaft
Turboprop
Turbofan
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Turbojet
Projects a column of air to the rear at an extremely high velocity.
Turboshaft
Delivers power through a shaft to drive something other than a propeller.
Turboprop
Propulsion is accomplished by the conversion of the majority of the gas-energy into mechanical power to drive a propeller.
Turbofan
Basically the same as a turboprop except that the propeller is replaced by a duct-enclosed axia-flow fan.
State the purpose of an afterburner.
Used to boost the normal thrust rating of a gas turbine engine through additional burning of the remaining unused air in the exhaust section.
State the NATO symbols for the following fuels and briefly explain the characteristics and reasons for the use of each:
JP4
JP5
JP8

JP4- F-40: flame spread rate 700-800 FPM. low flashpoint of -10F. never used on ships.
JP5- F-44: 100 FPM. flash 140F. the only approved fuel for use aboard naval vessels.
JP8- F-34: 100 FPM. flash 100F.
Describe the 3 hazards associated with jet fuel.
Explosion from fuel fumes
Vapor inhalation
Toxic contact with skin, eyes, or swallowing can cause illness or death.
Describe the symptoms of fuel vapor inhalation.
Nausea, dizziness, and headaches. Can cause death.
Explain the purpose of the Auxiliary Power Unit (APU).
To provide electrical power when engine-driven generators are not operating or when external power is not available. Also provides compressed air for air conditioning and pneumatic engine starting.Makes the a/c independent of the need for ground power units to carry out its mission.
Identify the reasons for and methods of Non Destructive Inspection (NDI)
The practice of evaluating a part or sample of material without impairing its future usefulness. Methods may include visual, optical, liquid, penetrate, magnetic particle, eddy current, ultrasonic, radiographic, etc.
Discuss icing and its effects on the performance of naval aircraft.
Icing can cause: loss of engine power, aerodynamic efficiency, loss of proper operation of control surfaces, brakes and landing gear, loss of outside vision, false instrument indications, and loss of radio.
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