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examples of irregular bones
vertebrae and some facial bones
axial skeleton
skull, vertebral column, and thoracic area
Number of skull bones
22 total = 8 cranium + 14 facial
sutures
immovable joints within skull
scoliosis
lateral bending of spine
coronal suture
sagittal suture
lambdoidal suture
squamous suture
kyphosis
exaggerated hunchback curve
lordosis
exaggerated lumbar curve
appendicular skeleton
pelvic and pectoral girdles
how much bone do we recycle a week
5-7 %
comminuted fracture
bone fragments into many pieces
compression fracture
bone is crushed
depressed fracture
broken bone is pressed inward
immpacted fracture
broken bone ends are forced into each other
spiral fracture
ragged break in bone due to twisted forces
greenstick fracture
bone breaks incompletely (kids)
hematoma
a blood clot formed by broken blood vessels that hemorrhage
trabeculae
characteristic of spongy bone that contain irregularly arranged lamellae and osteocytes connected by canaliculi
lamella
matrix tubes within the bones
volksmans canals
lie at right angles to the long axis of the bone and connect th blood and nerve supply of periosteum to central canal
lacunae
small cavities occupied by the osteocytes
canaliculi
hair-like canals that connect lacunae to each other and central canal
Spongy bone _____ have osteons
does not
structural classification of joints depends on
1. what material binds them together 2. whether or not a joint cavity is present
functional classification depends on:
1. amt of movement at joint
sutures
fibrous joints that are synarthrotic .. found in skull
syndesmosomes
fibrous amphiarthrotic or diarthrotic joints, ex. in connection between tibia and fibula and ulna and radius
gomphoses
"peg in socket" joints, fibrous, examples are teeth
synchondroses
cartilaginous joints that move from amphiarthrotic to synarthrotic after growth, ex. btw manubrium and 1st rib,
symphyses
cartilaginous joints that are amphiarthrotic and examples in intervertebral discs
synovial joint characteristics
1. diarthrotic 2. joint cavity 3. reinforced by ligaments 4. can also be reinforced by tendons 5. synovial fluid
synovial fluid functions
1. Supplies 02 and Nutrients 2. Lubricant 3. Shock absorption 4. Immuno functions-contain phagocytes
types of synovial joints
1. ball and socket 2. saddle joint 3. condyloid joint 4. pivot 5. hinge 6. plane
ball and socket joint examples
shoulder joints and hip joints
saddle joint
between trapezium (carpal) and metacarpal
condyloid joint
knuckle joints
pivot joint
btw proximal ends of radius and ulna
hinge joints
btw the phalanges
plane joints
intercarpal and intertarsal joints
ligament functions
1. join bones 2. direct bone movement 3. prevent excessive function 4. Strengthen a joint
Muscle tendon
1. Joining muscles or m-to-b 2. stabilization of joint 3. keeping muscle tone 4. strengthen a joint
origin side of muscle
relatively immovable or fixed part on one side of joint
insertion side of muscle
movable part of the side of joint
flexion
joint angle decreases, parts come closer
extension
joint angle increases, parts move apart
abduction
moving part away from midline
aduction
moving a part toward midline
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