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personality
The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others; measurable traits a person exhibits.

"the dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment." (Allport)
personality traits
Enduring characteristics that describe an individual’s behavior.
Personality Determinants
Heredity
Environment
Situation
heredity
Factors determined at conception; one’s biological, physiological, and inherent psychological makeup.
Methodologies to Measure Personality
Self-report surveys
Observer-rating surveys
Projective measures
.......Rorschach Inkblot Test
.......Thematic Apperception Test
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types.

The 4 possible characteristics are
Extraverted(E) or Introvert(I);
Sensing(S) or Intuitive(N);
Thinking(T) or Feeling(F);
Judging(J) or Perceiving(P)
Extraverted (E) versus Introverted (I)
(MBTI)
Extraverted individuals are outgoing, sociable, and assertive. Introverts are quiet and shy.
Sensing (S) versus Intuitive (N)
(MBTI)
Sensing types are practical and prefer routine and order. They focus on details. Intuitives rely on unconscious processes and look at the “big picture.”
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)
(MBTI)
Thinking types use reason and logic to handle problems. Feeling types rely on their personal values and emotions.
Judging (J) versus Perceiving (P)
(MBTI)
Judging types want control and prefer their world to be ordered and structured. Perceiving types are flexible and spontaneous.
Big Five Model
A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions:
Extraversion,
Agreeableness,
Conscientiousness,
Emotional stability and
Openness to experiences
Extraversion (B5M)
The extraversion dimension captures our comfort level with relationships. Extraverts tend to be gregarious, assertive, and sociable. Introverts tend to be reserved, timid, and quiet.
Agreeableness (B5M)
The agreeableness dimension refers to an individual’s propensity to defer to others. Highly agreeable people are cooperative, warm, and trusting. People who score low on agreeableness are cold, disagreeable, and antagonistic.

Conscientiousness (B5M)
The conscientiousness dimension is a measure of reliability. A highly conscientious person is responsible, organized, dependable, and persistent. Those who score low on this dimension are easily distracted, disorganized, and unreliable.
Emotional stability (B5M)
The emotional stability dimension—often labeled by its converse, neuroticism—taps a person’s ability to withstand stress. People with positive emotional stability tend to be calm, self-confident, and secure. Those with high negative scores tend to be nervous, anxious, depressed, and insecure.

Openness to experience (B5M)
The openness to experience dimension addresses range of interests and fascination with novelty. Extremely open people are creative, curious, and artistically sensitive. Those at the other end of the category are conventional and find comfort in the familiar.
Exhibit 5-1:
Traits That Matter Most to Business Success at Buyout Companies
Most Important
Persistence
Attention to detail
Efficiency
Analytical skills
Setting high standards

Less Important
Strong oral communication
Teamwork
Flexibility/adaptability
Enthusiasm
Listening skills
Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB
Core Self-evaluation
.......Self-esteem
.......Locus of Control
Machiavellianism
Narcissism
Self-monitoring
Risk taking
Type A vs. Type B personality
Proactive Personality
Other-orientation
core self-evaluation
Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities, competence, and worth as a person.

Self-esteem
Locus of Control
Self-esteem (Core Self-evaluation)
Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves.
Locus of Control (Core Self-evaluation)
The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate.

Internal or External
Internals (Locus of Control)
Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them.
Externals (Locus of Control)
Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.
Machiavellianism(often abbreviated Mach)
The degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means.

Niccolo Machiavelli, who wrote in the sixteenth century on how to gain and use power
Conditions Favoring High Machs
Direct interaction with others
Minimal rules and regulations
Emotions distract for others
narcissism
The tendency to be arrogant, have a grandiose sense of self-importance, require excessive admiration, have a sense of entitlement and tends to be rated as less effective
self-monitoring
A personality trait that measures an individual’s ability to adjust his or her behavior to external, situational factors.


High Self-Monitors
Receive better performance ratings
Likely to emerge as leaders
Show less commitment to their organizations
risk taking
A person's willingness to take risks. People differ in their willingness to take chances, a quality that affects how much time and information they need to make a decision.

High Risk-taking Managers
Make quicker decisions
Use less information to make decisions
Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations
Low Risk-taking Managers
Are slower to make decisions
Require more information before making decisions
Exist in larger organizations with stable environments
Risk Propensity
Aligning managers’ risk-taking propensity to job requirements should be beneficial to organizations.
proactive personality
People who identify opportunities, show initiative, take action, and persevere until meaningful change occurs.

They create positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.
other-orientation
A personality trait that reflects the extent to which decisions are affected by social influences and concerns vs. our own well-being and outcomes.
Type A’s Personality Type
are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly;
feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place;
strive to think or do two or more things at once;
cannot cope with leisure time;
are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire.
Type B’s Personality Type
never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience;
feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments;
play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost;
can relax without guilt.
Values
Mode of conduct or end state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right & good)

Rokeach Value Survey
.....Terminal Values

.....Instrumental Values

Importance of Values
Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures.
Influence our perception of the world around us.
Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.”
Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.
Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior
Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders trickles down and directly effects the Ethical Climate in the Organization
Value System
A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.
Terminal Values(Rokeach Value Survey)
Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime.
Instrumental Values(Rokeach Value Survey)
Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.
List of Terminal Values (Rokeach Survey)
A comfortable life (a properous life)
An exciting life (a stimulating, active life)
A sense of accomplishment (lasting contribution)
A world at peace (free of war and conflict)
A world of beauty (beauty of nature and the arts)

Equality (brotherhood, equal opportunity for all)
Family security (taking care of loved ones)
Freedom (independence, free choice)
Happiness (contentedness)
Inner harmony (freedom from inner conflict)
Mature love (sexual and spiritual intimacy)
National security (protection from attack)
Pleasure (an enjoyable, leisurely life)
Salvation (saved, eternal life)
Self-respect (self-esteem)
Social recognition (respect, admiration)
True friendship (close companionship)
Wisdom (a mature understanding of life)
List of Instrumental Values (Rokeach Survey)
Ambitious (hardworking, aspiring)
Broad-minded (open-minded)
Capable (competent, effective)
Cheerful (lighthearted, joyful)
Clean (neat, tidy)
Courageous (standing up for your beliefs)
Forgiving (willing to pardon others)
Helpful (working for the welfare of others)
Honest (sincere, truthful)
Imaginative (daring, creative)
Independent (self-reliant, self-sufficient)
Intellectual (intelligent, reflective)
Logical (consistent, rational)
Loving (affectionate, tender)
Obedient (dutiful, respectful)
Polite (courteous, well-mannered)
Responsible (dependable, reliable)
Self-controlled (restrained, self-disciplined)

Exhibit 5-3 Mean Value Ranking Executives, Union Members, and Activisits (Top Five Only)

EXECUTIVES
Terminal
1. Self-respect
2. Family security
3. Freedom
4. A sense of accomplishment
5. Happiness

Instrumental
1. Honest
2. Responsible
3. Capable
4. Ambitious
5. Independent

UNION MEMBERS
Terminal
1. Family security
2. Freedom
3. Happiness
4. Self-respect
5. Mature love

Instrumental
1. Responsible
2. Honest
3. Courageous
4. Independent
5. Capable

ACTIVISTS
Terminal
1. Equality
2. A world of peace
3. Family security
4. Self-respect
5. Freedom

Instrumental
1. Honest
2. Helpful
3. Courageous
4. Responsible
5. Capable
Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework (Geert Hofstede)
Power Distance
Individualism vs. Collectivism
Masculinity vs. Femininity
Uncertainty Avoidance
Long-term and Short-term orientation
Power Distance (Hofstede)
A national culture attribute that describes the extent to which a society accepts that power in institutions and organizations is distributed unequally.
A high rating on power distance means that large inequalities of power and wealth exist and are tolerated in the culture, as in a class or caste system that discourages upward mobility. A low power distance rating characterizes societies that stress equality and opportunity.

Low Distance
High Distance
Low (Power) Distance (Hofstede)
Relatively equal power between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth

High (Power) Distance (Hofstede)
Extremely unequal power distribution between those with status/wealth and those without status/wealth
Individualism versus collectivism (Hofstede)
Individualism is the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups and believe in individual rights above all else. Collectivism emphasizes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
individualism (Hofstede)
A national culture attribute that describes the degree to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of groups.
collectivism (Hofstede)
A national culture attribute that describes a tight social framework in which people expect others in groups of which they are a part to look after them and protect them.
Masculinity versus femininity (Hofstede)
Hofstede’s construct of masculinity is the degree to which the culture favors traditional masculine roles such as achievement, power, and control, as opposed to viewing men and women as equals. A high masculinity rating indicates the culture has separate roles for men and women, with men dominating the society. A high femininity rating means the culture sees little differentiation between male and female roles and treats women as the equals of men in all respects.
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