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interpolated beat
a PVC that falls between two sinus beats without effectively interrupting this rhythm
coupling interval
distance between the preceding beat and the PVC
aberrant conduction
conduction of the electrical impulse through the heart's conductive system in an abnormal fashion
bundle branch block
a knd of interventricular heart block in which conduction through either the right or left bundle branches is blocked or delayed
bundle of Kent
an accessory AV conduction pathway that is thought to be responsible for the ECG findings of preexcitation syndrome
defibrillation
the process of passng an elctrical current through a fibrillating heart to depolarize a critical mass of myocardial cells.  This allows them to repolarize uniformly, resulting in an organized rhythm
synchronized cardioversion
the passage of an electric current through the beart during a specific part of the cardiac cycle to terminate certain kinds of dysrhythmias
acute coronry syndrome (ACS)
a spectrum of coronary artery disease processes from myocardial ischemia and myocardial injury to myocardial infarction and includes the clinical entities of stable and unstable angina and acute myocardial infarction
angina pectoris
cheat pain that results when the heart's oxygen requirements exceed oxygen supply available from blood
Prinzmetal's angina
variant of angina pectoris caused by vasospasm of the coronary arteries, not blockage per se; also called vasospastic angina or atypical angna
reperufsion
restoring blood flow to ischemic tissue
myocardial infarction (MI)
death and subequent necrosis of the heart muscle caused by inadequate blood supply; also acute myocardial infarction (AMI)
transmural infarction
myocardia infarction that affects the full thickness of the myocardium and almost always results in a pathological Q wave in the affected leads
ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)
a transmural (Q wave) myocardial infarction in which Q waves may appear fairly late in the infarction, but ST segment elevation occurs almost immediately; usually caused by complete obstruction of a coronary artery, involving the full thickness of the heart wall
subendocardial infarction
myocardial infarcton that affects only the deeper levels of the myocardium; also called non-Q wave infarction because it typically does not result in a significant Q wave in the affected lead
non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)
a subendocardial myocardial infarction that typically presents with normal or depressed ST segments and no Q wave development; usually caused by partial obstruction of a coronary artery and involving less than the full thickness of the heart wall
percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI)
placement of a catheter into an artery and its advancement to the heart to aid in visualizing the coronary arteries
coronary arteriogram/coronary angiogram
administration of a radiographic contrast dye into the coronary arteries via a catheter advanced from a remove artery to permit radiographic visualization of the coronary arteries and any possible obstructions or lesions to these arteries
percutaneious transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)
insertion and inflation of a balloon into an artery to dilate an obstructed artery
primary coronary stenting
insertion of a wire mesh scaffold to prop open an artery recently cleared by angioplasty
coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG)
a surgical procedure in which the saphenous vein from one leg or an internal mammary artery is harvested and used to construct a bypass around the bloacked area of an artery that is not amenable to clearing by PCI techniques.  Also called aortocoronary grafting
heart failure
clinical syndrome in which the heart's mechanical performance is compromised so that cardiac output cannot meet the body's needs
pulmonary embolism (PE)
blood clot in one of the pulmonary arteries
congestive heart failure (CHF)
condition in which the heart's reduced stroke volume causes an overload of fluid in the body's other tissues
paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea (PNA)
a sudden episode of difficult breathing that occurs after lying down; most commonly caused by left-heart failure
cardiac tamponade
accumulation of excess fluid inside the pericardium
hypertensive emergency
an acute elevation of blood pressure that requires the blood pressure to be lowered within 1 hour; characterized by end-organ changes such as hypertensive encephalopathy, renal failure or blindness
hypertensive encephalopathy
a cerebral disorder of hypertension indicated by severe headache, nausea, vomiting, and altered mental status.  Neurologic symptoms may include blindness, muscle twitches, inability to speak, weakness, and paralysis
cardiac shock
the inability of the heart to meet the metabolic needs of the body, resulting in inaduquate tissue perfusion
cardiac arrest
the absence of ventricular contraction
sudden death
death within 1 hour after the onset of symptoms
dowtime
duration from the beginning of the cardiac arrest until effective CPR is established
total downtime
duration from the beginning of the arrest until the patient's delivery to the emergency department
resuscitation
provision of efforts to return a spontaneous pulse and breathing
return of psontaneous circulation (ROSC)
resuscitation results in the patient's having a spontaneous pulse
survival
when a patient is resuscitated and survives to be discharged from the hospital
atheroscleross
a progressive, degenerative disease of the midsize and large arteries
arteriosclerosis
a thickening, loss of elastivity, and hardening of the walls of the arteries from calcium deposits
claudication
severe pain in the calf muscle due to inadequate bood supply.  It typically occurs with exertion and subsides with rest
aneurysm
the ballooning of an arterial wall, resulting from a defect or weakness in the wall
dissecting aortic aneurysm
aneurysm caused when blood gets between and separates the layers of the aortic wall
cystic medial necrosis
a death or degeneration of a part of an artery wall
acute pulmonary embolism
blockage that occurs when a blood clot or other particle lodges in a pulmonary artery
acute arterial occlusion
the sudden occlusion of arterial blood flow
vasculitis
inflammation of blood vessels
peripheral arterial atherosclerotic diease
a progressive degenerative disease of the midsize and large arteries
deep venous thrombosis
a blood clot in a vein
varicose veins
dilated superficial veins, usually in the lower extremity
vector
a force that has both magnitude and direction
QRS axis
reduction of all the heart's electrical forces to a single vector represented by an arrow moving in a single plane
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