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THYROID GLAND
Effects of thyroxine is to raise the metabolic rate
THYROID (A)
HYPER: Benign or malignant tumor, Graves disease, exopthalmic goiter
THYROID (B)
HYPO: benign or malignant tumor, ednemic goiter, cretinism, myxedema
THYROID (C)
Effect of thyrocalcitonin is to lower the blood Ca by depositing it in the bones and decreasing kidney reabsorption of Ca
PARATHYROID GLAND
Effect of parathyroid is to raise blood Ca by taking it out of the bone tissue, increasing kidney reabsorption of Ca, and increasing absorption of Ca by the gut
PARATHYROID GLAND (A)
HYPER: Benign or malignant tumor, kidney failure, low vit D, (cant absorb Ca from gut w/o vit.D) increase parathormone to try to get Ca from bones).
PARATHYROID GLAND (B)
HYPO: Benign or malignant tumor, thyroidectomy with accidental removal of parathyroid.
PANCREAS
Effect of insulin is to lower blood sugar by increasing sugar absorption from the blood into the cells.
PANCREAS (B)
Effect of glucagon is to raise blood sugar by converting glycogen stores in the liver to glucose and sending glucose i/t the blood.
INSULIN
HYPER: (Causes hypoglycemia) Insulin-producing tumor, other known etiologies
INSULIN (A)
HYPO: (Causes hyperglycemia)= Diabetes mellitus
INSULIN (B)
TypeI: auto immune response against pancreas B cells that produce insulin, pancreatitis, benign or malignant tumors, others
INSULIN (C)
Type II: Lack of insulin receptors
ADRENAL
The adrenal medulla produces neutotransmitters such as adrenaline and noradrenaline which sustain the Fight or Flight response.
ADRENAL (A)
HYPER: Pheochromocytoma tumor
ADRENAL Cortex
The adrenal cortex produces 3 types of different classes of corticosteriods. the glucocorticoids act in the long-term stress response.
ADRENAL Cortex (A)
The mineralcorticoids regulate electrolyte balance by the kidney.
ADRENAL Cortex (B)
The Sex steroids influence sexual development, puberty, and adult sexual characteristics.
ADRENAL Cortex (C)
HYPER: Cushings syndrome, aldosteronism, sexual precocity and virilizing syndromes.
ADRENAL Cortex (D)
HYPO: Addisons
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