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The uptake of nutrients by the cells of the small intestine for transport into either the blood or the lymph
Acidophilus Milk
a cultured milk created by adding Lactobacillus acidophilus, a bacterium that breaks down lactose into glucose and galactose, producing a sweet lactose-free milk
above-normal acidity in the blood and body fluids
Adipose tissue
the body's fat tissue, consists of masses of triglyceride storing cells
above-normal alkalinity in the blood or body fluids
a major protein in human breast milk
a major protein in cow's milk
the active vitamin E compound
Amino acid pool
the supply of amino acids derived from either food proteins or body proteins that collect in the cells and circulating blood and stand ready to be incorporated in proteins and other compounds or used for energy.
Amino acids
building blocks of proteins- each contains an amino group, an acid group, a hydrogen atom, and a distinctive side group all attached to a central carbon atom.
Amino acid scoring
a measure of protein quality assessed by comparing a protein's amino acid pattern with that of a reference protein
an enzyme that hydrolyzes amylose.
an enzyme that breaks down carbohydrates
reactions in which small molecules are put together to build larger ones- requires energy
Anorexia nervosa
eating disorder characterized by a refusal to maintain a minimally normal body weight and a distortion in perception of body shape and weight
medications used to relieve indigestion by neutralizing acid in the stomach
Antioxidants (in the body)
compounds that protect others from oxidation by being oxidized themselves, thereby decreasing the adverse effects of free radicals on normal physiological functions
Antioxidants (as an additive)
preservatives that delay or prevent rancidity of fats in foods and other damage to food caused by oxygen
Antiscorbutic factor
the original name for vitamin C
Basal metabolism
the energy needed to maintain life when the body is at complete digestive, physical, and emotional rest
The thiamin deficiency disease
Beta carotene
one of the carotenoids- an orange pigment and vitamin A precursor found in plans
an emulsifier that prepares fats and oils for digestion- an exocrine secretion made by the liver, stored in the gall bladder, and released into the intestines as needed.
Binders (Phytates and Oxalates)
chemical compounds in foods that combine with nutrients (especially minerals) to form complexes the body cannot absorb.
Binge-eating disorder
an eating disorder whose criteria are similar to those of bulimia nervosa, excluding purging or other compensatory behaviors
the accumulation of contaminants in the flesh of animals high on the food chain
the rate at and the extent to which a nutrient is absorbed and used
Biological value
a measure of protein quality assessed by measuring the amount of protein nitrogen that is retained from a given amount of protein nitrogen absorbed
a B-vitamin that functions as a coenzyme in metabolism
Body Mass Index (BMI)
an index of a person's weight in relation to height- determined by dividing the weight (in kg) by the square of height (in m)
Bomb calorimeter
an instrument that measures the heat energy released when foods are burned, thus providing an estimate of the potential energy of foods
Brown adipose tissue
masses of specialized fat cells packed with pigmented mitochondria that produce heat instead of ATP
Bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by repeated episodes of binge-eating usually followed by self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise
a natural stimulant found in many common foods and beverages, including coffee, tea, and chocolate. May enhance endurance by stimulating fatty acid release. High doses cause headaches, trembling, rapid heart rate
the most abundant mineral in the body; found primarily in bones and teeth.
units by which energy is measured- food is measured in kilocalories. One kcal is the amount of heat necessary to raise the temp of one kg of water one degree Celsius.
compounds composed of carbon, oxygen, and hydrogen arranged as monosaccharides or multiples of monosaccharides. Most carbohydrates have a ratio of (CH20)n
Cardiac output
the volume of blood discharged by the heart each minute
a nonessential, nonprotein amino acid made in the body from lysine that helps transport fatty acids across the mitochondrial membrane
pigments commonly found in plants and animals, some of which have vitamin A activity
reactions in which large molecules are broken down to smaller ones- release energy
a strong laxative
Central obesity
excess fat around the trunk of the body; also called abdominal fat or upper-body fat
Cholecsystokinin (CCK)
a hormone produced by cells of the intestinal wall. Target organ is the gall bladder, which responds by releasing bile and slowing of GI motility
one of the sterols containing a four-carbon ring structure with a carbon side chain
less than 2 mg cholesterol per serving and 2 g or less saturated fat and trans fat per serving
a nitrogen-containing compound found in foods and made in the body from the amino acid methionine
the class of lipoproteins that transport lipids from the intestinal cells to the rest of the body
the semiliquid mass of partly digested food expelled by the stomach into the duodenum
complex organic molecules that work with enzymes to facilitate the enzymes' activity. (Many coenzymes have B vitamins as part of their structures)
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