Cloned from: RT 211



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Front Back
Obstructive Disease
Reduced flows
Restrictive Disease
Normal Flows
Thorax
Houses and protects the organs of the cardiopulmonary system, from C7 to the diaphragm
True ribs
The first seven ribs that attach directly to the sternum.
False ribs
Ribs 8-10, articulate with the ribs above.
Floating ribs
The 11th and 12th ribs, do not attach to the sternum.
Pump handle movement.
Increases the AP diameter.
Bucket handle movement.
Increases the lateral diameter
3 parts of the sternum
Manubrium, body, xyphoid process.
Lungs attach too...
Only attach to the hilus, hang freely in thoracic cavity.
Lobes of Lung
5 total
  • Right Upper
  • Right Middle
  • Right Lower
  • Left Upper
  • Left Lower
Pleura
Thin membrane of mesothelial cells.
Parietal Pleura
Lines the entire surface of the thorax.
Diaphragm
Separates the thoracic cavity from the abdominal cavity. 2 membranous hemidiaphragms connected by a membranous central tendon. Distends 1.5 cm for normal breaths. 6-10 for deep breaths.
External Intercostals
A principle muscle of deep inspiration. Lower border of rib and moves inferiorly and anteriorly to insert into the superior edge of the rib below.
Scalene muscles
  • Anterior
  • Medial
  • Posterior
Originate from lower 5 cerv. vert., instert into the upper portion of the 1st & 2nd ribs.  Elevate the 1st & 2nd ribs.
Sternocleidomastoid
Rotate and support the head.  Ventilatory muscle during labored breathing.
Mediastinum
Central structure in chest. Contains the trachea, heart, major blood vessels, nerves and esophagus.  Occupies the space between the lungs and between the sternum and vertebra.
Larynx function
Gas conduction, Phonation, Sphincter mechanism and Cough
Tracheobronchial tree
2 zones
  • Conducting Zone, cartilagihous (bronchi) and membranous airways (bronchioles)
  • Respiratory Zone, sites of gas exchange 
Trachea
Generation 0
10-13 cm in length, 1.5-2.5 cm in diameter
Mainstem Bronchi
Generation 1
  • Right, 2.5 cm long, 25 degree angle off trachea 
  • Left, 5 cm long, 40-60 degree angle off trachea
Lobar Bronchi
5 Lobes, 5 Lobar bronchi
  • Lobar bronchi
  • Segmental bronchi
  • Subsegmental bronchi 
Terminal Bronchioles
Generations 16-19
  • Goblet cells, submucosal glands, and cilia progressively disappear.
  • transition from the cuboidal epithelial structure to squamous cells.
  • Canals of lambert, which provide collateral ventilation 
Respiratory Zone
  • Respiratory bronchioles
  • Alveolar ducts
  • Alveolar sacs
  • Alveoli
Mucus Blanket
2 Layers
  • Sol-closest to the epithelial layer
  • Gel-Has decreased water content (most interior layer)
Cilia
Contained almost entirely in Sol layer, extend into the innermost portion of the gel layer and propel mucus toward the larynx
  • functions as self-cleansing mechanism
  • propell mucus at a rate of about 2 cm/min.
Lung Parenchyma
3 layers,
  • Alveolar Epithelium
  • Interstitium
  • Capillary Endothelium 
Alveolar Epithelium
  • Type 1,95% of alveolar surface
  • Type 2-granular pneumocyte, role is production , storage and secretion of surfactant
  • Type 3- Alveolar macrophage, mononuclear phagocytes
Bohr Equation
Vt (PACO2-PECO2)
_________________
PACO2
Modified Bohr Equation
Vt (PaCO2-PECO2)
_________________
PaCO2
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