Cloned from: Clinical Anatomy 1



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Components of the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
Cranial nerves (12 pairs, abbreviated CN I-XII)
Spinal nerves (31 pairs)
Components of the Central Nervous System (CNS)
Brain
Spinal cord
PNS and CNS
Structure of a Neuron:

dendrites, cell body, and axon
Describe:

Somatic Nervous System 
Autonomic Nervous System (aka Visceral motor)   Visceral Sensory
“Typical Spinal Nerve” (single neuron w/ cell body and axon)
Location of motor cell bodies: Ventral horn
Motor fibers
exit spinal cord via: Ventral root
Location of sensory cell bodies: Dorsal root ganglion
Sensory fibers enter spinal cord via: Dorsal root

Ventral and dorsal roots join to form:
Spinal nerve (motor + sensory fibers)  
Be able to identify dorsal and ventral rami on a Netter's-like drawing
Describe the segmental organization of the thorax, including the nerves and vessels of the thoracic wall.
Describe the segmental organization of the thorax, including the nerves and vessels of the thoracic wall.
Describe the segmental organization of the thorax, including the nerves and vessels of the thoracic wall.
Describe the thoracic skeleton
Compare the pathways of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Compare the pathways of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
Compare the pathways of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems.
What are the two components of the autonomic nervous system?
Describe how dermatomes (sensory innervation segments of the skin) relates to referred pain
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Sagittal Plane
Coronal plane (frontal)
Transverse plane (axial)
Know ipsilateral vs contralateral
Know ipsilateral vs contralateral
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
Identify the thoracic vertebrae, ribs, costal cartilages, sternum (manubrium, body, xiphoid process) and clavicles on a skeleton and the cadaver. Locate the costal groove, jugular notch, sternal angle, and costal margin. [thoracic wall, thoracic vertebrae, ribs, sternum, clavicle]
VAN review
Describe the course and branches of a typical spinal nerve, segmental artery and vein in an intercostal space (e.g., relative to ribs and muscle layers). Use your knowledge of the contents of an intercostal space to perform an intercostal nerve block. [spinal nerves, intercostal musles, nerve block]
Review the definition of dermatome
Describe the course and branches of a typical spinal nerve, segmental artery and vein in an intercostal space (e.g., relative to ribs and muscle layers). Use your knowledge of the contents of an intercostal space to perform an intercostal nerve block. [spinal nerves, intercostal musles, nerve block]
Good nervous system explanation diagram:
Intercostal arteries
  • Primary blood supply of the thoracic wall is via the thoracic aorta and the internal thoracic arteries (branches of the subclavian artery)
  • Posterior intercostal arteries
    • The majority arise from the aorta
    • Course with an intercostal nerve and vein (between internal and innermost intercostal muscles)
    • Anastomose with anterior intercostal arteries
  • Anterior intercostals arteries
    • Arise from internal thoracic arteries (internal mammary arteries)
    • Usually two anterior intercostal arteries per intercostal space
    • Anastomose with the posterior intercostal artery and its collateral branch
Intercostal Veins
  • Drain into azygos system of veins posteriorly, which then drains into the SVC
  • Drain into the internal thoracic veins anteriorly, which then drain into the brachiocephalic veins, and finally, into SVC
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Distinguish between the parietal and visceral pleurae. Define the pleural cavity and costodiaphragmatic recesses. Apply your knowledge of the costodiaphragmatic recesses to perform thoracocentesis. [thoracic cavity, pleural cavity, pleura]
Thoracocentesis
__
Thoracocentesis
Procedure to drain excess fluid or blood from pleural cavity
A needle is inserted into an intercostal space (avoiding the inferior border of the rib above and the superior border of the rib below)
A good location for performing thoracocentesis is the posterior aspect of the seventh through ninth intercostal spaces, as the needle enters the costodiaphragmatic recess, avoiding injury to the lungs and nearby abdominal organs. However, other locations are often used, depending on the location of the effusion.
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