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The germ theory of disease was developed by
Louis Pasteur
The first non-pressure-flowing steam sterilizer was developed by
Robert Koch
The use of a vacuum process to enhance steam penetration was recommended by
J. J. Kinyoun
The absence of microbes or infection is called
Asepsis
The number of microbes or organic debris that exist at a given time is referred to as
Bioburden
The contamination of a person or object by another person or object is called
Cross contamination
Methods used to prevent contamination of the sterile field are referred to as
Sterile technique
The multiplication of organisms in the tissues of a host is called
Infection
Escherichia coli normally resides in the lumen of the
Intestine
Bacilli are typically found to be in the shape of a
Rod
Bacteria that require oxygen to sustain life are called
Aerobic
Which pathogen leads in the percentage of infections?
Staphylococcus aureus
Some bacteria such as Clostridium are prone to form a very tough shell called a/an
Spore
A nonliving particle that is completely reliant on the host cell for survival is called a
Virus
The primary source of airborne bacteria transmission in the operating room is the
Surgical team
A blood-borne pathogen that puts health-care workers at particular risk is
Hepatitis C
A surgical procedure involving perforated viscera is classified as a
Class IV, dirty wound
Most surgical infections occur because of
Preexisting patient conditions
The sources of surgical site infections are divided into which two groups
Environmental and endogenous
Infection contracted within the healthcare setting is known as
Nosocomial
When wearing sterile gowns and gloves the arms shoud not be folded with hands in the axilla because
This area cannot be viewed by the wearer of the gown
An exception to the rule not to raise one's hands above the midchest area is to
Place light handles or light handle covers prior to the beginning of the surgical procedure
Sterile items and individuals may
Contact sterile items and individuals
Members of the sterile surgical team should pass eachother within the sterile field by facing one another or
Pass back to back by rotating 360 degrees
Nonsterile items and individuals may
Only contact nonsterile items and individuals
Fluid bottles may be recapped and reused under what conditions?
If the bottle is sterile
The basis for the practice of strict adherence to sterile technique is called
Surgical conscience
The physical removal of blood and body fluids or gross debris from an inanimate object is called
Cleaning
The process that assures that all microorganisms including spores are killed is called
Sterilization
Cleaning is necessary before disinfection because
The presence of organic debris decreased the effectiveness of diinfectants
Filtered air from the decontamination room is exhausted to
The outside of the healthcare facility
Detergent selection is primarily based on the
Type of instrument to be cleaned
Instruments with multiple parts should be ____ prior to cleaning.
Disassembled
When stainless steel instruments are manually cleaned, a/an ______ should be used to avoid scratching the surface of the instrument.
Back-and-forth motion that follows the grain of the instrument
A limitation to using tap water for presoaking solution is that
Tap water is ineffective in softening or removing dried debris
Saline solution should not be used to clean stainless steel instruments because
The salt will pit the stainless steel instruments
A catalyst used to aid in the breakdown of organic material such as blood and tissue is
An enzyme
An enxyme is usually used as a
Soaking solution
The type of chemical cleaner that is least corrosive to surgical instruments is
A neutral pH product
The washer decontaminator and ultrasonic washer are examples of
Mechanical decontamination units
The _____ is used to remove small organic particles and soil from areas of instruments that are difficult to clean manually
Ultrasonic washer
Cleaning solutino in the ultrasonic washer is frequently changed because
Each use resultsĀ  in increased bioburden in the solution
The washer decontaminator does not render th instruments
Sterile
To avoid damage, stainless steel instruments should not be placed next to ______ in the washer-sterilizer.
Instruments made from other metals
At the end of the washer sterilization cycle instruments are not considered
Appropriate for use on the patient
An intermediate level of disinfection may be appropriate for
None of the above
Low-level disinfection may be appropriate for
Noncritical items
Physical factors that affect the efficiency of disinfection are
Temperature, level of bioburden, time
Instrument preparation begins after decontamination and involves the following steps in this order:
Sterilization, opening, use
Basins that will be nested within each other prior to steam sterilization must ____ to prevent formation and retention of condensate.
Be separated with an absorbent towel
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