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Aspirational ethics
A higher level of ethical practice that addresses doing what is in the best interests of clients.
Assessment
Evaluating the relevant factors in a client's life to identify themes for further exploration in the counseling process.
Confidentiality
This is an ethical concept, and in most states therapists also have a legal duty not to disclose information about a client.
Diagnosis
Identifying a specific mental disorder based on a pattern of symptoms that leads to a specific diagnosis; sometimes part of the assessment process.
Dual or multiple relationships
A counselor assumes two (or more) roles simultaneously or sequentially with a client. This may involve assuming more than one professional role or combining
professional and nonprofessional roles.
Ethical decisions
To make ethical decisions, consult with colleagues, keep yourself informed about laws affecting your practice, keep up to date in your specialty field, stay abreast of developments in ethical practice, reflect on the impact your values have on your practice, and be willing to engage in honest self-examination.
Evidence-based practice (EBP)
Psychotherapists are required to base their practice on techniques that have empirical evidence to support their efficacy.
Informed consent
The right of clients to be informed about their therapy and to make autonomous decisions pertaining to it.
Mandatory ethics
The view of ethical practice that deals with the minimum level of professional practice.
Nonprofessional interactions
Additional relationships with clients other than sexual ones.
Positive ethics
An approach taken by practitioners who want to do their best for clients rather than simply meet minimum standards to stay out of trouble.
Practiced-based evidence
Using data generated during treatment to inform the process and outcome of treatment.
Privileged communication
A legal concept that generally bars the disclosure of confidential communications in a legal proceeding.
Psychodiagnosis
The analysis and explanation of a client's problems. It may include an explanation of the causes of the client's difficulties, an account of how these problems developed over time, a classification of any isorders, a specification of preferred treatment procedure, and an estimate of the chances for a successful resolution.
Countertransference
the process of therapists seeing in their clients patterns of their own behavior, overidentifying with clients, or meeting their own needs through their clients.
culture
the values and behaviors shared by a group of individuals.
Diversity -competent practitioner
an ongoing process that involves a practitioner developing awareness of beliefs and attitudes, acquiring knowledge about race and culture, and learning skills and intervention strategies necessary to work effectively with culturally diverse populations.
self - monitoring
the ability to pay attention to what one is thinking, feeling, and doing. this is a crucial first step in self - care.
value imposition
refers to counselors directly attempting to define a clients values, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors.
Anal stage
The second stage of psychosexual development, when pleasure is derived from retaining and expelling feces.
Analytical psychology
An elaborate explanation of human nature that combines ideas from history,
mythology, anthropology, and religion.
Animus (anima)
The biological and psychological aspects of masculinity and femininity, which are thought to coexist in both sexes.
Anxiety
A feeling of impending doom that results from repressed feelings, memories, desires, and experiences emerging to the surface of awareness. From a psychoanalytic perspective, there are three kinds of anxiety: reality, neurotic, and moral anxiety.
Archetypes
The images of universal experiences contained in the collective unconscious.
Blank screen
An anonymous stance assumed by classical psychoanalysts aimed at fostering transference.
Borderline personality disorder
A disorder characterized by instability, irritability, self-destructive acts, impulsivity, and extreme mood shifts. Such people lack a sense of their own identity and do not have a deep understanding of others.
Brief psychodynamic therapy (BPT)
An adaptation of the principles of psychoanalytic theory and therapy aimed at treating selective disorders within a preestablished time limit.
Classical psychoanalysis
The traditional (Freudian) approach to psychoanalysis based on a long-term exploration of past conflicts, many of which are unconscious, and an extensive process of working through early wounds.
Collective Unconscious
From a Jungian Perspective, the deepest level of the psyche that contans an accumulation of inherited experiences
Compensation
An ego-defense mechanism that consists of masking perceived weaknesses or developing certain positive traits to make up for limitations.
Contemporary Psychoanalysis
Newer formulations of psychoanalytic theory that share some core characteristics of classical analytic theory, but with different applications of techniques; extensions and adaptions of orthodox psychoanalysis.
Crisis
According to  Erikson, a turning point in life when we have the potential to move forward or to regress. At these turning points, we can either resolve our conflicts or fail to master the developmental task.
Death Instincts
A Freudian concept that refers to a  tendency of individauls to harbor an unconscious wish or die or hurt themselves or others; oaccounts for the aggressive drive.
Denial
In denial there is an effort to suppress unpleasant reality. It consists of coping with anxiety by closing our eyes to the existence of anxiety-producing reality.
Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT)
A blend of cognitive behavioral and psychoanalytic techniques that generally involves a minimum of one year of treatment.
Displacement
An ego-defense mechanism that entails redirection of some emotion from a real source to a substitute person or object.
Dream Analysis
A technique for uncovering unconscious material and giving clients insight into some of their unresolved problems. Therapists participate with clients in exploring dreams and in interpreting possible meanings.
Dream Work
The process by which the latent content of a dream is transformed into the less threatening manifest content
Ego
The part of the personaility that is the mediator between the external reality and inner demands.
Ego Psychology
The psychosocial approach of Erik Erikson, which emphsizes the development of the ego or self at various stages of life.
Ego-defense Mechanisms
Intrapsychic processes that operate unconsciously to protect the person from threatening and anxiety-poducing thoughts, feelings and impulses.
Fixation
The condition of being arreseted, or stuck, at one level of psychosexual development
Free Association
A primary technique, consisting of spontaneous and uncensored verbalization by the client, which gives clues to the nature of the client's uncounscious conflicts.
Genital Stage
The final stage of psychosexual development, usually attained at adolescence, in which heterosexual interests and activies are generally predominant.
Id
The part of the personality, present at birth, that is blind, demanding, and insistent. Its function is to discharge tension and return to homeostasis.
Id Psychology
A Theory stating that instincts and intapsychic conflicts are the basis factors shaping personaility development (both normal and abnormal).
Identification
As an ego defense, this may involve individuals identifying themselves with successful causes in the hope that they will be seen as worthwhile.
Identity Crisis
A developmental challenge, occuriring during adolescence, whereby the person seeks to establish a stable view of self and to define a place in life.
Individuation
The harmonious inegration of the conscious and unconscious aspects of personality.
Interpretation
A technigue used to explore the meanings of free association, dreams, resistances, and transerence feelings.
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