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photosynthesis
The process by which plants use sunlight to fuel a chemical reaction that combines carbon and water into glucose, which in then stored in their cells.
carbohydrate
One of three macro nutrients made up of, hydrogen, and oxygen that is dereived from plants and provides energy.
glucose
The most abundant sugar molecule, a monosaccharide generally found in combination with other sugars; it is the preferred source of energy for the brain and an important source of energy for all cells.
monosaccharide
The simplest of carbohydrates, consisting of one sugar molecule, the most common form of which is glucose. Glucose fructose, riboseĀ and galactose.
disaccharide
Contain two sugar molecules.
*Lactose, maltose, sucrose.
polysaccharide
A complex carbohydrate consisting of a long chain of glucose
*Starch, glycogen, fiber
Fiber
Polysaccharide with bonds that are not easily broken down meaning most fiber passes through the body undigested.
dietary fiber
non digestibale parts of plants that form the support structures of leaves, stems, and seeds. "plants skeleton"
functional fiber
the non-digestible forms of carbohydrates that are extracted from plants or manufactured in a laboratory and have known health benefits. Added to foods and is the form used in fiber supplements.
* cellulose, guar gum, pectin, and psyllium.
total fiber
the sum of dietary and functional fiber.
Glycogen
Polysaccharide; the storage form of glucose in animals.
Simple Carbohydrate
commonly called sugar; can be either monosaccharide or disaccharide.
Fructose
the sweetest natural sugar; a monosacharide that occurs in fruits and vegetables; also called levulose or fruit sugar.
galactose
monosaccharide that joins with glucose to create lactose
ribose
Five carbon monosaccharide that is located in the genetic material of cells.
Lactose
disaccharide consisting of one glucose and one glactose molecule
maltose
disaccharide consisting of two molecules of glucose. It does not generally occur independently in foods , but results as a by-product of digestion; also called malt sugar
Soluable fibers
Fibers that disolve in water
insoluable fibers
Fibers that do not dissolve in water
ketosis
The process by which the breakdown of fat during fasting states results in the production of ketones
ketones
Substances produced during the breakdown of fat when carbohydrate intake is insufficient to meet energy needs. Ketones provide an alternative energy sorcue for the brain when glucose is gone
Gluconeogenesis
The generation of glucose from the breakdown of proteins into amino acids.
Ketoacidosis
Condition in which excessive ketones are persent in the blood. causing the blood to become very acidic, which alters basic body functions and damages tissues. Untreated can be fatal. This condition is found in individuals with untreated diabetes mellitus.
Salivary Amylase
An enzyme in saliva that breaks starch into smaller particles and eventualyl into the disaccharide.
pancreatic amylase
an enzyme secreted by the pancreas into the small intestine that digest any remaining starch into maltose.
maltase
breaks maltose into glucose
sucrase
beraks sucrose into glucose and fructose
lactase
breaks lactose into glucose and galactose
insulin
The hormaon secreted by the beta cells of the pancreas in response to increased blood levels of glucose; it facilitates the uptake of glucose by body cells.
glucogon
The hormone secreted by the alpha cells of the pancreas in response to decreased blood levels of glucose; it causes the breakdown of liver stores of glycogeninto glucose.
hypoglycemia
a condition marked by blood blucose levels that are below normal fasting levels.
Glycemic index
The sytem that asigns ratings(or values) for the potential of foods to raise blood glucose and insulin levels.
Glycemic load
the amount of carbohydrates in a food multiplied by the glycemic index of the carbohydrate.
added sugars
sugars and syrups that are added to food during processing or preparation
Enriched
the addition to a food of nutrients that were lost during processing so that the food will meet a specified standard.
Fortified
the addition to a food of nutrients that were either not originally present or present in insignificant amounts
Nutritive sweeteners
sweeteners such as sucrose, fructose, honey, and brown sugar, that contribute Calories.
non-nutritive sweeteners
manufactured sweeteners that provide little or no energy; also called alternative sweeteners
Acceptable Daily Intake(ADI)
An FDA estimate of the amount of non nutritive sweetener that someone can consume each day over a lifetime without adverse effects.
The glycemic index rates_______?
The potential of foods to raise blood blucose and insulin levels.
Carbohydrates contain_______?
CArbon, hydrogen and oxygen
The most common source of addes sugar in the American diet is________?
sweetened soft drinks
Glucose,fructose, and glactose are_____?
Monosaccharides
Apartame should not be consumed by people who have_________?
Phenylketonuria
True or Flase? Sugar alcohols are non-nutritive sweetners/
FAlse. sugar alcohols are considered nutritive sweetners becaue thety contain 2 to 4 kcal of energy per gram.
True or False? Both insulin and glucogen are pancreatic hormones.
True
True or flase? Adults need about 10 grams of fiber daily.
False. Adults need at least 25 grams of fiber daily
True or Flase? Plants store glucose as fiber.
False. Plants store glucose as starch.
True or flase? Salivary amylase breaks down starches into galactose.
False. Salivary amylase breaks starches into maltose and shorter polysaccharides.
The simple carbohydrates include _______________________ and the
_______________________.
Monosaccharides,Disaccharides
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