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the electrical pathway starts where?
At the SA node
what initiates each heartbeat?
SA node
what is known as the pacemaker of the heart?
SA node
where is the SA node located?
right atrium
how fast does the SA beat?
75 to 100 beats per minute
the SA node travels where?
to the AV node
where is the AV node located?
in the interatrial septum
it beats up to how many bpm
45 to 60bpm
the current leaves the AV node and travels where?
to the bundle of HIS
where is the bundle of his located?
between the ventricles
how fast does the bundle of his beat?
25 to 30bpm
the current leaves the Bundle of his and travels to where?
Purkinjie Fibers
what is cardiac output?
amount of blood pumped from left ventricle in one minute
which chamber is considered the workhorse?
left Ventricle
Cardiac output is figured to be what?
stroke volume x heart rate
what is stroke volume?
amount of blood ejected by a ventricle in one contraction and averages about 60 to 80ml a beat
where is considered the preload of the heart
venous return to the right atrium
what is afterload?
forces impeding the blood flow out of the heart
normal heart rate should be what?
60 to 100bpm
what is considered Tachycardia?
anything over 100bpm
S&S of Tachycardia
tired, SOB, sweaty, febrile, low BP due to low blood volume
what is considered Bradycardia?
anything under 60 BPM
S&S of Bradycardia
tired, SOB, heart failure, valve problems, hypothermia, not fireing at the SA
Normal blood pressure
what's the normal BP range?
100/60 - 140/90
below 100/60 is considered what?
S&S of hypotension?
tired, dizzy, diaphoretic,
nursing interventions for hypotensive pt
increase fluid volume
hypotension is due to what?
decreased cardiac output from low blood volume
what is greater than 140/90 considered?
S&S of hypertension?
headache, anxious, blurred vision, red face, sudden onset may be dizzy.
what secretes renin to regulate BP?
if BP is too low or if pt vasodilates too much the kidneys will release what?
renin is secreted and leads to what?
angiotensin 1
angiotension 1 leads to what?
angiotensin 2
angiotensin causes what?
vasoconstriction, which causes elevated BP
vasoconstriction makes the heart work harder to force blood into the aorta which leads to what?
cardiomegaly - enlarged heart/thickened walls.
vasoconstriction stimulated production of what hormone from teh adrenal glands?
aldosterone causes the kidneys to retain what?
sodium - which increases blood volume by retaining fluid
what is orthostatic BP used for?
to see how well the heart adapts to positions with hypotension and hypertension.
orthostatic changes are usually related to
hydration problem.
cynosis & mottling are due to what?
vasoconstriction, conserving the blood to vital organs
if the cap refill is greater than 3 secs we need to worry about what?
cardiac output, blood volume, perfusion
a normal temp is
96.6 - 99.3
pulses are true signs of what?
true cardiac output, true perfusion to tissue
why should you check radial pulses?
to check  bilateral for intensity
s1 is the sound of what?
the tricuspid and mitral valve closing
S2 is the sound of what?
the pulmonary and aortic valves closing
what does a murmur sound like?
swishing, swooshy sound
what is valve regurgitation?
blood is going both directions.
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