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Confidentiality involves keeping private all information that is not intended for the public at large.
Integrity is about protecting information and systems from unauthorized access
Availability means keeping systems up and running to ensure that all users can get the information they need when they need it.
Security tasks
Achieving the goals of security centers around these tasks: identification and authentication
Identification and authentication
Identification and authentication are about identifying users of information and verifying that each user is who he or she claims to be (not an impostor).
Authorization is the act of controlling who has access to what
Accountability means maintaining security logs and audit trails of user activities to hold people accountable for their actions.
\\\"MAC (Mandatory Access Control) is used mostly by governmental agencies. It\\\'s based on security clearances
\\\"DAC (Discretionary Access Control) is access control at the discretion of the object\\\'s owner rather than predefined rules or administrators. ACLs (access-control lists) allow for very granular (detailed) access control. Lack of centralized administration can be a drawback
RBAC (Role-Based Access Control) solves the problem of multiple users in multiple roles performing multiple operations by basing access control on an individual\\\'s role within the organization. It also simplifies administration in settings that have high turnover in employment because users can easily be put into appropriate roles.
First step of securing a network
An important first step in securing a network is to disable all unused protocols on routers and network interface cards within the network to minimize the attack surface.
Social Engineering
Social engineering is the most common form of network attack. Any nontechnical attack is considered social engineering
Malicious software
Malicious software (malware) refers to programs intentionally written to cause harm. This category includes the virus
Virus and worms
Viruses and worms are both self-replicating. A virus needs a host to replicate. A worm needs no host.
Rootkits are hidden programs that have full administrative (root) privileges on a system.
Brute force and dictionary
Brute force and dictionary are both password-guessing attacks whose sole intent is to uncover a user\\\'s password.
Buffer overflow
Buffer overflows attempt to crash a system by overflowing data buffers. They exploit software vulnerabilities caused by poor programming practices.
Spoofing involves forging an IP address to conceal the true source of an IP packet or to misdirect traffic to an attacker\\\'s computer.
Denial of Service (DoS) attacks do not attempt to steal information or gain unauthorized access. They just try to prevent legitimate access to a resource by overwhelming or crashing that resource.
SYN flood
A SYN flood is a DoS attack that exploits vulnerabilities in a TCP connection\\\'s three-way handshake.
\\\"Ping of death
DDoS (Distributed Denial of Service) attacks use many zombie computers to flood a Web server with requests so that legitimate requests can\\\'t get through.
Masters Paradise
Man-in-the-middle attacks use a computer or application to capture and manipulate packets as they cross a network.
TCP session hijacking
TCP session hijacking takes over a connection\\\'s session state in a way that allows a third party to intercept traffic without the victim\\\'s knowledge.
HTTP is the protocol of the Web. Traffic is conducted in clear text through TCP port 80.
Clear text
Clear text (plain text) is vulnerable to snooping and tampering.
Encryption brings confidentially and integrity to Internet traffic by replacing clear text (plain text) with cipher text.
SSL/TLS brings encryption to all Internet Application Layer protocols including HTTP (Web)
SSL/TLS handshake
In an SSL/TLS handshake
SSL V3.0
SSL V3.0 brings mutual authentication to SSL by (optionally) forcing a client to authenticate with its own digital certificate.
SSL/TLS supports both 40-bit and 128-bit encryption keys.
HTTPS uses SSL to encrypt sensitive data being sent to and from Web servers.
Signed applets
While signed applets help authenticate a program\\\'s origin
Cookies can be misused by attackers to gain account and personal information
Port Scan
Attackers scan ports on Web servers to find vulnerabilities. Be sure to disable all unnecessary programs and processes to minimize the server\\\'s attack surface.
Sites that use CGI are vulnerable to many attacks
Internet E-mail uses SMTP to transmit clear text data through TCP port 25.
\\\"S/MIME and PGP use encryption to bring confidentiality
S/MIME requires a digital certificate purchased from an authorized Certificate Authority. PGP does not require a commercial digital certificate.
Spam and e-mail hoaxes
To a security administrator
E-mail relay servers
E-mail relay servers are used to protect a company\\\'s primary e-mail server. 3rd Party email
In-house e-mail relay servers
In-house e-mail relay servers should not be configured to relay all mail. Replace *
Email Server
To prevent a company e-mail server from sending spoofed junk mail
Instant messaging
Instant messaging (IM) was created without regard to security and as such poses many problems for security administrators.
IM File transfer
IM file transfers are unrestricted
IM Data
All IM data is transmitted in clear text
Instant Messaging
is best treated as a social engineering threat. User training and awareness are the best defense.
transmits clear text data through TCP ports 20 and 21. To bypass packet sniffing vulnerabilities
Disable anonymous FTP
To prevent unwanted files from being uploaded to FTP servers
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