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Melting/Boiling Point
Increases with polarity and symetry of a molecule.  High MW also causes an increase.
Rate Law
Rate=k[A]x[B]y

look for reactions were one conc. is constant and one changes then set up a ratio
Le Chatelier's Principle
Reactions move towards equilibrum and can be effected by changing pressure, temp, or conc.
Equilibrium of products based on change in energy
ΔG=-RTlmKeq
T=temp in K; ΔG= change in energy
Thermodynamic
Equilibrium
ΔG=ΔH-TΔS
Hess's Law

ΔHrxn=ΔHreact-ΔHprod

Avogadro's Number

6.022x1023 molecules in a mol
Prssure

Ratio of mols and ratio of pressure are the same
PA=XAPTotal
P=pressure
X=partial pressure(frac/percent)

XA=(mol of A)/(total mols)
What does it mean if something is listed as 2.0 N (w/ respect to X)?
It means that t is 2M with respect to X.  2 mols /Liter of X
pH and pKA
Convert amount into mols or [M]

KaxKb=-log(10-14) or Kw t

p(x)=-log(x)

-log(ax10-b) = b-log[a]
Balancing Redox Reactions
Separate into two half reactions

Balance oxygens

Balance hydrogens

Neutralize H or OH if nessc.

Balance charge using e-

Balance the e-'s in the two half reactions to the lowest common multiple

combine and simplify
Battery Cells

Standard Potential of cell: E°cell=E°Cathode-E°anode


Max work done by the cell
ΔG°=-nFE°cell
Faraday's Constant
100,000 coulombs or J/V
the charge in 1 mol of e-
Nerst Equation
Ecell=E°cell-(RT/nF) (ln Q)

Q= rxn quotient = ratio of molarties of products divided by their reagents each multiplied by their respective coeffecients. only species in solution are included
EMF and Equilibrium
ΔG°=-RTlnKeq
x of y cards