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Contraindications of Immunizations
- Severe allergy to a vaccine component - Severe allergy following a prior dose of a vaccine - Encephalopathy w/o a known cause occurring w/in 7 days of a previous dose of pertussis vaccine is an absolute contraindication to subsequent dose
Immunization Schedule
- 2 months: DPT, IPV HIB, Hepatitis B - 4,6,9,12,15,18 months - 4-6, 11-12 years
DPT Immunizations
Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus
IPV Immunization
Inactivated Polio Vaccine
HIB Immunization
Haemophilus Influenza type b conjugate
Communicable Disease
Mumps, Rubella, Rubeola, Roseola, Chicken Pox, Scarlet Fever, Fifth Disease, Pertussis
Incubation period
Time between infection or exposure to appearance of first symptoms
Prodromal period
Interval between appearance of initial symptoms and when overt disease is present
Mode of transmission
Mechanism by which an infectious agent is transported to the host
Mumps: Agent, Source, Incubation period, Period of Communicability
Paramyxovirus Saliva of infected persons 14-21 days Immediately before and after swelling begins
Mumps: Manifestations
Prodromal: fever, headache for 24h Acute: earache worse on chewing, parotitis maxes out at 3 days Complications: Sublingual inf, orchitis, meningocephalitis Care: analgesics, antipyretics
Rubella: Agent, Source, Transmission, Incubation period, Period of Communicability
Rubella Virus Nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, stool, urine Direct contact 14-21 days 7 days pre and 6 days post rash
Rubella: Manifestations
Prodromal: low fever, headache, conjunctivitis, sore throat, cough, swollen lymph nodes for 1-5 days Acute: rash on face goes to neck, arms, trunk, legs, pink maculopapular exanthema, low fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes Complications: danger to fetus Care: analgesics, antipyretics
Rubeola(Measles): Agent, Source, Transmission, Incubation period, Period of Communicability
Virus Nasopharyngeal secretions, blood, urine direct contact w/ droplets 10-21 days 4 days pre - 5 days post rash
Varicella: Agent, Source, Transmission, Incubation period, Period of Communicability
Varicella Zoster virus Secretions of resp tract, skin lesions Direct contact, droplet, contaminated objects 13-17 days, up to 3 weeks 1 day pre rash - and 6 days post crust of last crop of pustules
Varicella: Manifestations
Prodromal: slight fever, malaise, anorexia for 24 hrs Rash: pruritic, macule-papule-vesicle. Vesicle becomes umbilicated, cloudy, breaks easily. All stages present at this time. Constitutional s/s: fever lymphadenopathy, irritability from itching Care: acyclovir, VZIG for immune suppressed; benadryl, antihistamines, skin care
3 stages of Varicella
1. Papule: circumsribed, solid, elevated lesion of skin 2. Vesicle: Small, sac-like cavity, fluid containing lesion of skin 3. Crust: dried residue of exudate from an erosive skin lesion
Toddler
Age: 1-3 years Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt: - To exert autonomy, toddlers must relinquish the dependence on others that was enjoyed during infancy. - Continued dependency has the potential to create a sense of doubt in toddlers about their ability to take control of, and ultimately take responsibility for, their own actions.
Preschool Age
Age 3-6 years Initiative vs. Guilt: - Preschoolers develop a sense of initiative through their vigorous motor activity and active imaginations - When ridiculed for ideas or behaviors, they may develop feelings of guilt and inadequacy.
School-Age
Age: 6-12 years Industry vs. Inferiority: - The major task to be accomplished is full mastery of whatever the child is doing (sense of industry) - Inferiority occurs with repeated failures at attempted tasks and with little encouragement or trust from people important to the child
Adolescent
Age: 12-18 years Identity vs. Role Confusion: - The central task of adolescence is the establishment of identity, with the primary risk being role confusion.
Safety/Injury Prevention: Infants
Motor Vehicles, Drowning, Burns, Poisoning, Falls, Choking, Strangulation
Safety/Injury Prevention: Toddler
Falls, Poisonings, Burns, Motor Vehicle, Drowning, Buckets
Safety/Injury Prevention: Preschool Age
Motor Vehicle, Pedestrian Accidents, Drowning, Burns Teach 911 calls
Safety/Injury Prevention: School-Age
Motor Vehicle, Pedestrain Accidents, Bike Crashes, Firearms, Burns Reinforce 911 teaching
Safety/Injury Prevention: Adolescents
Motor Vehicle, Guns, Sports Injury, Drowning
Physical Responses to Lead Poisoning
Anemia, Renal Damage, Neurological Damage, Encepthalopathy, Vomiting, Abdominal Pain, Headache
Management and Risk Factors of Lead Poisoning
Management: Monitor and screening, Identification & removal of the source Risk Factors: Under 6 yrs, Houses built before 1980, Family members w/ lead related occupations/hobbies
Health Promotion
- Recommended schedule for health supervision - Early periodic screening detection & treatment - Build a healthy lifestyle from birth - Motivator for parents to adopt more healthy habits
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