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residual urine
amount remaining or left in the bladder after voiding
nephrostomy
catheter placed into the kidney
ureterosigmoidostomy
connection of ureters to the sigmoid colon and urine and feces drain through the colon
lithiasis
condition of having stones
ureterolithiasis
stones in the ureters
nephrolithiasis
stones in the kidneys
ileal condiut
creation of an artificial bladder using part of the ilium and drained through a stoma on the abdomen
nephrectomy
kidney removal
cystectomy
the removal of all or a portion of the urinary bladder
cystotomy
surgical incision of the urinary bladder
ureterostomy
surgical creation of an opening on the surface of the body for the ureters
urinary retention
holding urine
edema
abnormal fluid accumulation in the intercellular tissue spaces of the body
normal value of creatinine
0.6-1.3
how is creatinine produced?
from the metabolism of proteins
how is creatinine excreted?
in the urine
normal BUN value
6-20
how is urea produced in the body?
end product of protein metabolism
how is urea excreted?
in the urine
normal specific gravity of urine
1.010 to 1.025
list abnormal constituents of urine
glucose, ketones, albumin, blood, and bilirubin
what is a KUB
kidneys, ureters, and bladder x-ray
define IVP
intravenous pyelogram, radiopaque dye is injected and the kidneys, ureters, and bladder is x-rayed
cystoscopy
viewing of the inside of the bladder with a scope
list 4 causes of kidney stones
infection, dehydration, and urinary stasis
list 3 symptoms of kidney stones
renal colic, hematuria, pain with urination
list 6 points of nursing care with kidney stones
straining for calculi, increase fluids, .........
prevention of kidney stones
forced fluids - 3-4 liters per day, cranberry juice, encourage ambulation, preventative measures for infection
treatment of kidney stones
fluids, surgical removal if pt remains in colicky pain: lithotripsy, extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy
definition of BPH
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy - narrowing of the urethra which results as the prostate continues to grow throughout a mans life
symptoms of BPH or prostate cancer
stream has decreased force, narrower stream, residual urine, urinating 3-4 times each night, urgency, hesitency, hematuria
surgical types for BPH or prostate cancer
suprapubic prosthectomy, retropubic prosthectomy, perineal prosthectomy, TURP (transurethral resection of prostate)
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to bleeding (hematuria)
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to irrigations
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to bladder spasms
decreasing irrigation
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to types of catheters
post-op nursing care for prostate surgery related to rectal precautions
list 5 causes of chronic renal failure
polycystic disease, glomerulonephritis, obstructions, renal tumors, diabetes, severe HTN, anything that is a chronic disease
early symptoms of chronic renal failure
polyuria, headache, nocturia, weakness, fatigue
late symptoms of chronic renal failure
sallow, yellow color to face, uremic frost, CNS depression, anorexia, nausea and vomiting, GI bleed
treatment and nursing care of chronic renal failure
kidney transplant and dialysis
definition of cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder
symptoms of cystitis
urgency, frequency, dysuria, perineal and suprapubic pain, chills, fever, foul odor of urine
treatment of cystitis
antibiotics (sulfa drugs), patient teachings, avoid non-cotton underwear, encourage fluids, void after intercourse, no tub baths or bubble baths, cranberry juice, yogurt
definition of pyelonephritis
infection of the kidney and renal pelvis
list 4 or 5 symptoms of pyelonephritis
rapid onset of fever and chills, flank pain, malaise, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, pyuria, hematuria, urgency, frequency, low grade fever, vague GI complaints, anemia
list 6 treatments for pyelonephritis
antibiotics such as Keflex and polycillins, bed rest for 7-10 days, no straining, encourage fluids, I&O, keep patient away from other infections or diseases, repeat C&S after ATB completed
definition of glomerulonephritis
a group of diseases in which the kidneys are damaged and partly destroyed by inflammation of the glomeruli
list 8 symptoms of glomerulonephritis
puffy face, hematuria, headaches, irritability, albumin, RBS's, increase in BP, seizures
4 treatments for glomerulonephritis
symptom management, bed rest, fluids, low protein diet, decreased sodium intake, increase CHO and vitamins, antibiotics, and diuretics
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