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R and S config

number in order of increasing importance

R= clockwise or right
S = counterclockwise of left
Meso Compounds
are molecules that have chiral centers but are not optically active because they contain a line of symmetry
d and l config
D = + /right
L= - /left

in term of rotation of light

when both + and - are present it is called a racemic mixture
Fischer projections
the flat drawing with 90 degree angles. when converting a skeltal drawing into a fischer assign the r and s centers then convert.  when determing the r/s config in the fischer porjection the opposite of what is found is the true config. the vertical lines are bonds that are in the plane of the page and horizontial lines are the lines that are out of the plane of the page
Acidity Trends
more resonace = more acidic
pka inc or dec
increasing pka means that alkalinty and dec abilty to handle a neg charge

dec pka means increasing acidity and inc ability to handle a neg charge
Constitutional Isomers
same molecular formula but that is it, different connections, structrual isomers.  share the same number of atoms of each kind but they are connected differently
the group of isomers that is everything but but constitutional isoomers. they have the same atomic formula as well as connectivity
Geometeric isomers
have different connections around a double bond.  cis and trans as well as E and Z
a non-superimpossible mirror image. must have 4 different things attached to it
a pair of non superimposible chairal mirror images. are optically active and rotate light the same amount but in different directions
non-mirror image config isomers.  the differ at some chiral centers but not all
Names of things in new projections
anit-periplanar-when they are as far apart as possible, 180

gauche- beside each other

eclipsed- the groups are on top of each other

totally eclipsed- the largest groups are on top of each other
Axial vs Equitorial
in chair conformations:

axial is pointing up or down
equitorial pointing out
neuphilicity trends
more basic the more nucleophilic.  it has a better ability to take on and localize the positive charge
SN1 (solvolyitc conditions)
HUckle's rule
sn2 reactions
faster with less subs
backside attack
fastest in aprotic or polar solvent
SN1 reaction
fastes for most substituted
need a non-basic neu: not really strong base.  need a good lg and the product will be racemic
E1 reaction
depends on the conc of the substrate.  strong base favors this reaction
E2 reaction
favored by the strong base that are not great neuclophies
substitution vs elimination reactions
substituion are done by small nu: and eliminations are done by large ones
Orthto, meta, para
O= right beside bound subs.
M=2 away from bound subs.
P=opposite side of bound subs.

O/P directors are electron donating ie halide

M directors are electron withdrawing ie O groups
washing an organic layer with a base will pull out the acid and vice versa.
Unsaturation Equation
U= (2n+2-m)/2

n=number of carbons
m= number of proton and/or halogens minus the number of nitrogens
IR Peaks
c-c: 1200
c=c: 2200
aromatic c-c:1475-1625
o-h:3100-3500 broad
c=o: 1700-1750
c-o(ether): 1000-1100
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