by Adhana


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What is the def of mental retardation?
IQ >2 SD\\\'s below the mean (100)...or generally
What are the causes of mental retardedness?
1. Unknown (40%) 2. Genetic (25%) 3. Prental (asphyxia) 4. Perinatal (infection) 5. Abuse
Why would recurrent maternal SAB\\\'s possibly lead to mental retardation?
Chromosomal abnormalities
What range is mild MR (mental retardation)?
50-69 IQ
What range is moderate MR?
30-49 IQ
What range is severe MR?
IQ 20-29
What range is profound IQ?
<20
MR down to what range is teachable and can perform basic self-care?
Moderate (IQ 30-49)
What MR level is unable to care for self/totally dependent?
Profound
MR pts down to what IQ level have a good chance of living independently as adults?
Moderate (30-49 IQ)
What is the male to female ratio for autism?
5:1
What is the hallmark of dx of autism?
Impaired reciprocal social interaction**
Autistic peds develop normally until what age?
2-3 y/o
What is Asperger d/o?
\\\"Milder\\\" form of autism w/preservation of language development
What is the most common reason for amino/organic acid/inborn errors of metabolism (manifested by developmental regression)?
Hypothyroidism**
What is the tx for autism?
1. Refer to specialist 2. Psychostimulants 3. \\\"Atypical\\\" antipsychotics
What is the def of cerebral palsy?
Collection of static neuro-motor d/o\\\'s due to various nonhereditary injuries**
Insult/sx of cerebral palsy must occur by what age?
1-2 y/o
What are the 4 main types of CP (cerebral palsy) in order of most common to least common?
1. Spastic 2. Dyskinetic 3. Ataxic 4. Hypotonic (dystonic)
Scissor gait and toe-walking indicate what type of CP?
Spastic
Spastic CP involves what part of the brain?
Motor cortex**
Dyskinetc CP involves what part of the brain?
Basal ganglia**
Ataxic CP involves what part of the brain?
Cerebellum
What are the possible clinical findings of CP?
1. Developmental delay 2. Persistent infantile reflexes 3. Asymmetric motor activity
Hand-dominance prior to 12 mos is pathognomic for what d/o?
CP
What are the 3 basic goals for tx of CP?
1. Protect from injury 2. Maximize function 3. Support family
What dz does Wessel\\\'s rule refer to?
Colic
What is Wessel\\\'s rule for colic?
Crying >3hrs/day
85% of colic resolves by what age?
3 mos
What is the tx for colic?
Feed em
Temper tantrums usually last how long if ignored?
2-3 min
What d/o does the \\\"rule of 75\\\'s\\\" refer to?
ADHD
What is the rule of 75\\\'s?
1. 75% male 2. 75% fail at least one academic year 3. 75% benefit from medication
What aspects of discipline should we avoid in tx of temper tantrums?
1. Avoid rewards to prevent negative behavior (avoid bribing) 2. Avoid physical punishment (...right...)
What are the 2 subtypes of ADHD?
1. Inattentiveness 2. Hyperactivity
Both subtypes of ADHD must have sx for how long for dx?
6 mos**
What are some other qualifiers for ADHD?
1. Some sx < 7 y/o 2. Sx present in 2 or more settings 3. Clinically significant impairment 4. No other psychiatric d/o
What are some other qualifiers for ADHD?
1. Some sx < 7 y/o 2. Sx present in 2 or more settings 3. Clinically significant impairment 4. No other psychiatric d/o
What type of meds is typically used to tx ADHD?
Stimulants
What stimulants are used to tx ADHD?
1. Ritalin 2. Dexedrine 3. Adderall
What is not a stimulant that is used for ADHD?
Strattera**
What are the most important possible SE of stimulants?
1. Wt loss 2. Increased BP 3. Increased HR**
What is enuresis?
Invol urinary continence in a child > 5**
What are the 2 types of enuresis?
1. Nocturnal (80%) 2. Diurnal (20%)
Is nocturnal or diurnal enuresis more likely to have organic etiology?
Diurnal**
What is the def of secondary enuresis?
Pt has gone 6 mos w/out having accidents**
Is nocturnal enuresis more likely physiologic or organic?
Physiologic** (period)
What are the causes of primary enuresis?
1. Maturational delay 2. Small bladder 3. Sleep cycle d/o 4. Vasopressin (ADH) deficiency
How is size of bladder determined?
age + 2 yrs = size in ounces
What are the organic causes of secondary enuresis?
1. GU 2. Neurologic 3. DM 4. Encopresis
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