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Fetal Circulation
  • Oxygen added in placcenta
  • ductus venosus is the shuntt that directs blood away from liver
  • foramen ovale is a hole between the 2 atria which diverts blood out of pulmonary circulation(lungs)
  • ductus arterosus shunts blood from the pulmonary artery to the L aorta away from the lungs
  • umbilical arteries carry the deoxygenated blood back to the placenta and umbilical veins bring oxygenated blood to the fetus
  • Paritel cells of the stomach secrete HCl when stimulated by gastrin from G cells
  • pepsin needs a low pH ot function 1-3
  • pH must be increased to about 8 so that pancreatic proteases and lipases to be effective. pancrease secretes bicarbonate
  • pancrease also release many hydrolytic enzymes such as amaylse, trysinogen, chymotrypsiongen
  • all lipids are absorbed and digested in the small intestine
REspiratory System
  • anatomical dead space the space that doesn't participate in gas exchange b/c it is the transport lines
  • Alveolar dead space is the are in aveoli that is not exchanging gas
increased O2 consumption in the heart can be due to:
  • increased afterload (aortic pressure)
  • inc HR
  • inc contractility
  • inc heart size
Heart Valves
tricuspid: btwn right atrium and ventrical
mitrial: between left atrium and netrical
Aortic: left ventrical and aorta
Oxygen Dissociation Curve
plots hemoglobin saturation on the y axis and partial pressure of O2 on the x axis. When 1 O2 is bound to a heme it facilitates the others doing the same, thus sigmodial curve.  The decrease in ph in the body cause heme to have a lower afinity for O2 so the curve shifts to the right in venous blood.  tneo also cause a shift to the right and their combined effect is know as the Bhor effect.
Carbonmonoxide and O2 dissociation curve
CO has a much greater affinity for heme.  When it binds it increases the affinity of heme for O2 but so much that it will not release in the body.
Lymphatic System
  • lacteals are lymph vessels that absorb fat from the GI lineing
  • lymph is reintroduced into the thoracic duct and superior vena cava
  • skeletal muscles moving near the lymph system move it
  • there are fillametns that are attached to the lymph vessels that when muscles are moving cause the lymph vessels to open up and allow stuff to enter
Kidney function
ADH inhibits urrin production by inc water reaborption

renin stimulates the release of aldosterone which increases the asorption of sodium which brings water with it
Menstrual Cycle
  • lots of estrogen is produced in the fist 10 days of menstrual cycle (follicular phase)
  • hypothalmus produces GnRH with acts on the ant pituitary to release FSH
  • estrogen causes the vascularization of the uterine walls and has a neg feedback on FSH
  • after the F phase estrogen cause more FSH and LH to be produced thus causing ovulation
Action Potential
depolarization: Na gates open
repolarization: Na gates close and K gates open
hyperpolarization: all gates close

Penetrance isn the dependance of an organisms phenotype on its geneotype.  to get the probability of the expression. multiply the genotype by the penetrance.
A pairs with T(in DNA) or U(in RNA)
Hardy Weinberg Equation


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