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Egocentric Self/Individualistic Self
  • Capable of acting independently of others
  • The self is essentially the same person, but the individual plays different "Roles" — but is sitll considered the same whole identity
  • They are free to negociate one's place in society
  • Responsible for who one is
  • Self-reliant
Sociciocentric Self (collective/holistic)
The Sociocentric Self is context dependent
  • The self is not autonomous nor intrinsic
  • The self is defined in relationship to a specific interaction (doesn't endure over time)
  • The social group is included within the boundaries of the self
  • "The nail that sticks up gets hammered down"
The social definition of a human being
  • Making bodies "somebodies"
  • The self is cultural
How the individual is transformed iinto a person varies by culture.
Naming Mechanisms
Names transform the individual into a person.


Boys' Names are more 'Practical'
  • Taro ("First-born male")
  • Jiro ("Second-born male")
Girls' Names praise the quiet virtues of their culture.
  • Ko ("Filial Piety")
  • Kazu ("Obedient")
  • Miyuki ("Deep Snow")
  • Name given by father
  • Name is whispered in ear (to avoid the spirits)
  • Ngente (baby namin ceremony in Senegal)

"Major Happiness"
Naming system of boys in China were based off of this. 
  • Boys were able to help with farm work more than boys
  • Boys carried on family names 
"Small Happiness"
Naming system of girls born in China were based off of this.
  • "Too Many"/"Little Mistake" are translations of a couple of common girl names in China. 
Ming, Tzu, Hao
Ming: The first name a child is given is referred to as this. May express a wish for the child's or family's future, or may define a simple event that took place near the time of the child's birth. (People's Republic of China, during Korean War, people born might be called "Resist the United States" [Fan-mei])

The selection of other characters in a male's name, which indicates one's intellect and scholarliness.

Hao: The self-chosen business or career name for males in Chinese society
The exact opposite of being manly. 
Having womanly characteristics.
"Manhood is Problematic"
"A critical threshold that boys must pass through testing, [it] is found at all levels of sociocultural development regardless of what other alternative roles are recognized."
Oedipus Complex
Sigmund Freud's idea that male children have a desire to posess the mother. 
  • It is a phallocentric view of psychosexual development 
Primary Narcissism
Neo Freudian view
Reward for growing up
The challenge of boys trying to become a separate individual from the mother, to become a man.
Post-Freudian or Neo-Freudian
  • Beliefs in Primary Narcissism and separation-individualism
  • Sees that society rewards children for developing skills of their own and for 'growing up'
  • Boys encounter an extra challenge of overcoming previous unity with the mother to become a separate individual.
Peter Pan Complex
It is a battle against regression, to revolt against lapsing back to the mother and to boyishness.
  • Regression is unacceptable to the society (as well as to the individual)—one must participate, not escape...
  • Forms of cross-sex interactions that defines and affirms gender boundaries and meanings
  • Highlights children as "actors" who define gender
Contact and Avoidance
  • The Process of interaction between boys and girls during 'borderwork' to define and affirm gender boundaries.
  • Same-gender chasing goes unlabeled, forgotten
  • Cross-gender gets labeled: "kiss or kill" 
  • Safety zones for girls
  • Kissing as a weapon 
  • Girls "contaminating" boys
  • Girls sexualized boys; boys not sexualized
"Doing Gender"
The ongoing process between children of defining and redefining gender through play and borderwork.
Embodied Gender
Embodied Gender is one of Emily Martin's main points, expressing gender as something you feel and deeply experience.
Hidden Curriculum
  • The hidden curriculum facilitates children's acquisition of gendered physicalities
  • Schools facilitate the naturalness associated with gender
  • Schools foster a basis for gender inequalities.
Disciplining the Body
A means of training the body to aqcuire a sense of gender
The Legendary/Balls
Formal/Relaxed Behaviors
Paradigm of Plasticity
Cultural Plastic
Lifeboat Ethics
Moral Selective Neglect
Passive Infanticide
"Hierarchical Observation"
"Normalizing Judgement"
"The Examination"
"Codes of Gender"
Rubie Watson
  • Studied Cultural Heritage and Women, Work, and Family in Eastern Asia
  • Retired professor at Harvard University
  • Studied naming of Chinese Men and Women (Major happiness, small happiness)
David Gilmore
  • Studied the definitions of manhood
  • He is a professor of Anthropology at the University of Stony Brook, New York 
  • Questioned why the normal development of maculinity takes the form of a tournament
Karin Martin
Barrie Thorne
Fredrick Barth
Sigmund Freud
Michel Foucault
Emily Martin
Erving Goffman
Nancy Scheper-Houghs 
Susan Bordo
Ruth Handler
Kenneth and Mami Phipps Clark
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