by mtoom

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Front Back
What are the bony borders of the abdominal cavity?
Vertebral column, ribs, bony pelvis, pelvic inlet (i.e. superior pelvic aperture)
What is the lower limit of the abdominal cavity?
Pelvic inlet
What is the iliac crest?
Superolateral margin of pelvis
What is the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)?
The anterior extremity of the iliac crest
What are the pubic tubercles?
Bony tubercles on either side of the pubic symphysis
What is the pubic crest?
Region of bone between pubic tubercles and pubic symphysis
What 2 structures does the inguinal ligament connect to?
A band that runs from the pubic tubercle to the anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS)
What are the iliac tubercles?
The widest points of the iliac crest
What is the transtubercular plane?
Imaginary axial plane that crosses through the iliac tubercles
Name the 9 abdominal regions.
Left/Right hypochondriac, epigastric, left/right flank, umbilical, left/right inguinal, suprapubic
How do you find the surface location of the appendix? What is it called?
McBurney's point; 2/3 from umbilicus towards ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine)
What are 2 landmarks and their nerves for abdominal dermatones?
Xyphoid is T6, umbilicus is T10, T11/T12 are just below umbilicus
What is parietal peritoneum?
It is the lining peritoneum that connects to retroperitoneal structures.
What is visceral peritoneum?
It is the peritoneum that surrounds suspended structures in the abdominal cavity
What is the rectus sheath?
It is the aponeurotic tissue from the internal, external oblique muscles and transversus abdominis. It surrounds the rectus abdominus muscles on both sides until the arcuate line where it only exists on the anterior aspect.
What is fascia transversalis?
Layer of fascia that covers entire anterior wall of abdomen. Is continuous with fascia that covers pelvic cavity and postetior abdominal wall. Deep to transversalis fascia is parietal peritoneum.
Origin and insertion of external oblique?
Origin = Lower ribs; Insert = linea alba, iliac crest
Function of external oblique?
Increases intra-abdominal pressure; rotates trunk contralaterally
Origin and insertion of internal oblique?
Origin = Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest and inguinal ligament; Insert = Lower ribs, linea alba
Function of internal oblique?
Increases intra-abdominal pressure; rotates trunk ipsilaterally
Origin and insertion of transversus abdominis?
Origin = Thoracolumbar fascia, iliac crest, inguinal ligament, lower ribs; Insert = Linea alba
Function of transversus abdominis?
Increases intra-abdominal pressure
What nerves innervate anterior abdominal muscles (external/internal oblique, transversus abdominis, rectus abdominis)?
T7 through L1
Origin and function of rectus abdominis?
Origin = Pubic symphysis, crests, tubercles; Insert = Costal cartilage, xiphoid process
Function of rectus abdominis?
Increase intra-abdominal pressure; flex the trunk forward
Where does the inguinal ligament run?
From ASIS (anterior superior iliac spine) to pubic tubercles
Where does superficial inguinal ring open?
It opens in the aponeurosis of external oblique, allowing passage of inguinal canal
Where is superficial inguinal ring?
Just superior to pubic tubercle
Name the main contents of inguinal canal in men and women?
Men = spermatic cord, ilioinguinal nerve; Women = Round ligament of uterus, ilioinguinal nerve
What is the conjoint tendon?
Combined insertion of internal oblique and transversus abdominis formed by aponeurosis of both muscles
What is the position of the deep inguinal ring?
Halfway between ASIS and pubic symphysis, just lateral and anterior to femoral vessels
What structures contain the inguinal canal?
The external oblique aponeurosis, internal oblique muscle and transversalis fascia (in that order) contain the inguinal canal.
Describe the path of epigastric arteries and veins.
Internal thoracic artery becomes superior epigastric artery, which anastomoses with inferior epigastric artery at level of umbilicus. Inferior epigastric artery originates in iliac artery. Epigastric veins also traverse from iliac veins to internal thoracic vein.
What muscle do epigastric artery/vein run through?
They run through rectus abdominis.
What is a hernia?
Protrusion of an organ or the fascia of an organ through the wall of a cavity that normally contains it.
What is an indirect inguinal hernia? What side of the epigastric vessels does it occur on?
Peritoneal sac pushes down through the deep inguinal ring (can come through the superficial ring and into the testes as well). Occurs lateral to epigastric vessels.
What is a direct inguinal hernia?
Peritoneal sac pushes directly inferior through weakened posterior wall of the inguinal canal, medial to epigastric vessels.
What are 2 other types of abdominal hernias?
Umbilic and femoral hernias can also occur.
What are 3 main components of small intestines?
Duodenum, jejunum, ileum
What portion of the small intestine is the jejunum?
Proximal 2/5ths of the small intestine distal to duodenum
What portion of the small intestine is the ileum?
Distal 3/5ths of the small intestine distal to duodenum.
What is the ileocaecal junction?
Junction between small and large intestine.
What is the cecum?
The beginning of the large intestine, where ileum connects to the ascending colon.
What is the appendix?
An outpouching of the cecum.
What does intraperitoneal mean?
Surrounded/suspended by mesentry
What does extraperitoneal mean?
Attached to posterior wall (not entirely surrounded/suspended by mesentry)
Name the intraperitoneal components of gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Stomach, jejunum, ileum, appendix, transverse colon, sigmoid colon
Name the extraperitoneal components of gastrointestinal tract from mouth to anus.
Esophagus, duodenum, cecum, ascending colon, descending colon, rectum, anus
What is the greater omentum?
It is a large apron-like peritoneal fold, attached at stomach and duodenum that drapes over transerve colon and much of abdominal cavity.
What is the function of the greater omentum?
It can migrate around and has function in controlling inflammation.
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