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Calcitonin and parathyroid hormone secretions are regulated by negative feedback. Increased blood calcium levels result in
Increased calcitonin and decreased parathyroid hormone
The large gland located on either side of the larynx is the
Thyroid gland
The islets of Langerhans are found in the
What effect would a large increase in cortisol have on glucagon and insulin secretion?
Insulin would be increased and glucagon would be decreased
Cortisol is produced by the
Adrenal Cortex
Which of the following is a gonadotropic hormone?
luteinizing hormone
Which of the following hormones is synthesized in the posterior pituitary?
Antidiuretic hormone
The target tissues for oxytocin are the
Uterus and breasts
Which of the following is NOT a product of the adrenal gland?
An example of a mineralocorticoid is
The stalk connecting the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland is called the
Diabetes insipidus results from a lack of
Antidiuretic hormone
Mr. R is 54 years old. For the past 2 years, he has suffered from high blood sugar, frequent urination, and thirst. What is the most likely diagnosis?
Non–insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
Local hormones produced by most body tissues are
The suffix -poiesis means
Oral contraceptives contain
Estrogen and progesterone
The best treatment for anaphylaxis is
A word ending for a hormone that controls another gland is
A hormone that increases sodium loss and lowers blood pressure is
Atrial naturiuretic peptide
Nephromegaly is
enlargement of the kidney
Which system, the endocrine system or the nervous system, would be the better choice to regulate growth? Explain why.
The endocrine system is made up of glands such as the pituitary gland that produces and secretes hormones that regulate our growth. The nervous system has very little to do with human growth.
Using the example of thyroid hormones, explain how negative feedback is used to regulate hormone levels.
When the thyroid gland is secreting thyroid hormone a negative feedback system tells it when to stop. Once the body has enough thyroid hormone the hypothalamus and pituitary receive a signal to stop producing secreting TRH and TSH which trigger the thyroid gland. This keeps the body from producing too much thyroid hormone.
Describe the anatomy of the parathyroid glands.
There are four parathyroid glands posterior to the thyroid gland. They are very small and shaped like beans. The superior glands are located in the posterolateral aspect of the superior pole of the thyroid gland.  Inferior glands are not always in the same location but most often will be found near the lower thyroid pole.
List the three hormones involved in calcium regulation, and briefly describe the effect of each on blood calcium levels.
The three hormones involved in calcium regulation are calcitonin, parathyroid hormone (PTH), and 1,25 DHCC. Calcitonin reduces blood calcium levels by counteracting the PTH. PTH acts on the receptors PTH 1 and PTH 2, which increases calcium levels in the blood.  The DHCC increases calcium absorption in the intestine.
Ms. Z, age 52, is complaining of a lack of energy. She says she is often cold, even in the summer. You give her a check-up and notice that her face is swollen, her heart rate is abnormally low, and her hair is dry. What endocrine disease does Ms. Z have, and how can she be treated?
This sounds like hypothyroidism. If it is, the treatment plan includes the oral medication levothyroxine. This medication is usually one that will be taken for the rest of your life but the dosage should be reassessed annualy.
Describe the cause of Cushing disease, and list four symptoms associated with this disorder.
Cushing’s disease is caused by increased levels of the hormone cortisol which comes from several different areas of the body including the adrenal, pituitary, and thyroid glands. The excess cortisol can be caused by the use of corticosteroids as well as things like tumors on the pituitary gland and adrenal gland diseases. Some symptoms include weight gain, pink or purple stretch marks, fragile skin that bruises easily and heals slowly, and acne.
Mr. J suffers from abnormally low blood sugar. His doctor suspects a pancreatic tumor that is secreting a single pancreatic hormone. What is the name of this hormone? Explain your answer.
The hormone being secreted by the pancreatic tumor is likely insulin. When insulin levels are increased blood sugar gets lower which can cause dizziness. The abnormally low blood sugar is a sign that too much insulin is being produced.
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