by avarol


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GENETICS
study of genes, basically how they work together to produce variation and how genes are transmitted from one generation to another. \\n
GENE
a fundamental unit of inheritance something that is in organism, that influence its organism appearance and is passed onto progeny. \\n
GENOTYPE
an organism’s genetics compensation\\n
PHENOTYPE
what an organism looks like, results in combination of genotype and environment. \\n
PURE BREEDING (Breed True)
progeny genetically identical to the parents\\n
ALLELES
alternative forms of the same genes\\n
HOMOZYGOUS
two copies of the same allele\\n
HETEROZYGOUS
two different copies of allele\\n
MENDEL’s 1st LAW SEGREGATION
alleles segregate into gametes equally, gametes fuse randomly at fertilization so that there are again 2 copies of each gene. \\n
DOMINANT ALLELE
an allele that exhibits its phenotype in a heterozygote.\\n
RECESSIVE ALLELE
an allele that exhibits its phenotype only as homozygous. \\n
MONOHYBRID CROSS
Both parents are heterozygous for single gene\\n
TEST CROSS
experimental determination of genotypes for organism with a dominant phenotype\\n
DIHYBRID CROSS
each parent is heterozygous for the same two genes \\n
MENDEL’S 2ND LAW OF INDEPENDENT ASSORTMENT
Allele’s are different genes segregate independent of each other during gamete formation\\n
INCOMPLETE (partial dominance)
phenotype of the heterozygote is intermediate between either homozygote. \\n
CO-DOMINANCE
both alleles contribute equally to the phenotype of heterozygote\\n
LOCUS (pl. loci)
specific place on a chromosome where a gene resides. \\n
PLEIOTROPY
allele affects more than one phenotype\\n
EPISTASIS
genotype at one locus masks the phenotype at the second locus\\n
PENETRANCE
the proportion of individuals carrying a particular variation of a gene(an allele or genotype)\\n
EXPRESSIVITY
degree or severity of a phenotype\\n
GENOMIC IMPRINTING
Phenotype depends upon the parent from a particular gene in inherited. \\n
EUKARYOTIC CHROMOSOME
long duplex of DNA bond by many different types of protein. \\n
HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
highly similar, but not necessarily identical DNA sequences\\n
NON-HOMOLOGOUS CHROMOSOMES
have completely different DNA sequence\\n
MITOSIS
cell division whose purpose is to produce genetically identical daughter cells\\n
SISTER CHROMATIDS
chromosomes with identical DNA sequences produced by DNA replication\\n
METAPHASE
sister chromatids are aligned with their kinetochores pointing to opposite poles f spindle\\n
ANAPHASE
the cohesion complexes are destroyed and sister chromatids are pulled to opposite poles\\n
MEIOSIS
specialized cell division that reduces chromosome number in half in a highly specific way such that one number of each homologous chromosome pair is present\\n
ANAPHASE (meiosis I)
arm cohesion is released, thereby allowing the pairs of sister chromatids to separate\\n
METAPHASE II
sister chromatids orient to opposite poles\\n
ANAPHASE II
centromere cohesion is removed and sister chromatids segregate to opposite poles\\n
S PHASE
DNA is replicated resulting in chromosome duplication\\n
AUTOSOMES
chromosome pairs that are the same in both sexes\\n
SEX CHROMOSOMES
the sex chromosome that is different in genetic material between sexes\\n
HOMOGAMETIC
gametes are same with regard to a particular chromosome\\n
HETEROGAMETIC
gametes are different with regard to a particular chromosome\\n
SEX LINKAGE
difference patterns of inheritance are observed in reciprocal crosses due genes present on sex chromosomes\\n
NON-DISJUNCTION
mistakes in meiosis in the female, where the X chromosomes did not segregate to opposite poles\\n
HEMIZYGOUS
genotype in a diploid organism of genes present in single copy\\n
CARRIER
Individuals who are heterozygous allele, she does not exhibit mutant phenotype but is able to transmit the mutant allele to her offspring\\n
LINKAGE
parental combination of alleles is found more frequently in gametes then the recombination of alleles\\n
PARENTAL TYPE
configutation of alleles on the chromosomes of the organism whose meiosis are being examined, defined by the alleles in the gametes that fused to make that organism. \\n
RECOMBINANT TYPE
alternative configuration to the parental type\\n
INTERFERENCE
crossover in interval inhibits the formation of crossover in an adjacent interval. \\n
PROTOTROPHY
condition when cells can grow in minimum medium because the cell a can synthesis all of the nutrients it needs. \\n
AUXOTROPHY
condition when cells require the addition of nutrient to grow\\n
EUPLOID
All chromosome sets are complete
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