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What is thickening of the mitral valve tissue called which causes the valve to become narrow?
Mitral Valve Stenosis
What is a major cause of Mitral Valve Stenosis?
The main cause is a childhood infection called rheumatic fever, which is related to untreated strep infections. Rheumatic fever ¬タヤ once common in the United States and still prevalent in developing countries often scars the mitral valve.
What is Valvular Heart Disease?
When the valves are compromised and do not open and close properly. Two problems occur: stenosis, which is a thickening of the valve tissue, causing the valve to become narrow, and insufficiency, which occurs when the valve is unable to close completely.
What is an extra or unusual sound heard during a heartbeat and can range from very faint to very loud. They sometimes sound like a whooshing or swishing noise?
A Heart Murmur
What heart valve disease is it when the aortic valve weakens or balloons, preventing the valve from closing tightly, leading to backward flow of blood from the aorta into the left ventricle?
Aortic Insufficiency
What inflammatory disease predominantly results from a delayed childhood reaction to inadequately treated childhood pharyngeal or upper respiratory tract infection?
Rheumatic Heart Disease
What is it called when pericardial effusion restricts heart movement?
Cardiac tamponade
What categories of valve replacements are there?
Bioprosthetic or Mechanical valves
What type of replacment heart valve is taken from a deceased human donor?
Homograft valves
What type of replacement heart valve comes from an animal donor, such as a pig?
Heterograft valves
What term is used to describe a group of heart muscle diseases that primarily affects the structural or functional ability of the myocardium?
Cardiomyopathy
What are the characteristics of excess fluid volume?
The patient exhibits signs of severe respiratory distress when pulmonary edema occurs. Frothy sputum is produced from air mixing with the fluid in the alveoli; the sputum is blood-tinged from blood cells that have exuded into the alveoli.
What mnemonic device is used for a uniform assessment and documentation technique for veins and arteries?
PATCHES
What does the \"P\" stand for in PATCHES?
P for pulses. Assess the patient\'s affected extremity first. Then assess the apical pulse and bilateral temporal, carotid, brachial, radial, femoral, popliteal, posterior tibial, and dorsalis pedis pulses.
What does the \"S\" stand for in PATCHES?
S for sensation. Vascular discomfort can originate in arteries, veins, or in the microcirculation if the patient has diabetes mellitus. Besides asking the patient about pain, ask if he has other abnormal sensations, such as numbness or tingling.
What does the \"T\" stand for in PATCHES?
T for temperature. If the patient has an arterial problem, his affected extremity will feel cool; if his problem is venous, it will feel normal or abnormally warm.
What does the \"H\" stand for in PATCHES?
H for hardness. Palpate the extremity to determine if the tissues are supple or hard and inelastic. Hardness may indicate PVD, chronic venous insufficiency, lymphedema, or chronic edema. Hardened subcutaneous skin increases the risk of stasis ulcers.
What does the \"A\" stand for in PATCHES?
A for appearance. Note whether the extremity is pale, mottled, cyanotic, or discolored red, black, or brown. Document areas of necrosis or bleeding and the size, depth, and location of ulcers.
What does the \"C\" stand for in PATCHES?
C for capillary refill. Normally less than 2 seconds, but it may be extended when the patient has PVD.
What is the inflammation of the membranous sac surrounding the heart. It may be manifested as an acute or a chronic condition. Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection is associated with this acute disease?
Pericarditis
What is an infection or inflammation of the inner membranous lining of the heart, particularly the heart valves and may result from invasion of an organism or may be the result of injury to the lining?
Endocarditis
What may originate from rheumatic heart disease; viral, bacterial, or fungal infection; or endocarditis or pericarditis?
Myocarditis
Which is the most common type of primary cardiomyopathy, characterized by ventricular dilation?
Dilated cardiomyopathy
Which type of primary cardiomyopathy results in increased size and mass of the heart because of increased muscle thickness (especially of the septal wall) and decreased ventricular size?
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy
Which type of primary cardiomyopathy is it when the ventricular walls are rigid, thus limiting the ventricles\' ability to expand and resulting in impaired diastolic filling?
Restrictive cardiomyopathy
What is ABO testing?
The most well known and medically important blood types are in the ABO group. There are four principal types: A, B, AB, and O.
What distinguishes Rheumatic Fever from other Strep infections?
The heart valves are typically the most affected by Aschoff\'s nodules (vegetative growth) which attach to the valve or surrounding heart tissue causing further stenosis and valve failure.
What is a movement disorder that occurs with rheumatic fever?
St. Vitus\' dance or Sydenham\'s chorea
What are low-pitched, grating or creaking lung sounds that occur when inflamed pleural surfaces rub together during respiration?
Pleural Friction Rubs
What is the treatment for pericarditis?
Analgesia, Oxygen, parenteral fluids, Antibiotics to treat bacterial pericarditis, Salicylates for increased temperature and antiinflammatory agents and corticosteroids for a persistent inflammatory process, pericardial fenestration, pericardiocentesis
What is the treatment for endocarditis?
Rest, blood cultures, massive doses of antibiotics, surgical repair of diseased valves or prosthetic valvular replacement may be necessary
What is heart transplant protocol?
ABO blood typing, age, body and heart size
When grading a patient\'s pulse, how would you grade a pulse that is barely palpable, intermittent?
+1
When grading a patient\'s pulse, how would you grade a pulse that is bounding, easily palpable, may be visible?
+4
When grading a patient\'s pulse, how would you grade a pulse that is weak, possibly thready, but constantly palpable and with consistent quality?
+2
When grading a patient\'s pulse, how would you grade a pulse that is normal strength and quality?
+3
Which invasive test is used to check for thrombus?
D-dimer: A serum test. D-dimer is a product of fibrin degradation (change to a less complex form). When a thrombus is present, plasma D-dimer concentrations are usually greater than 1591 ng/mL. The normal range for D-dimer is 68 to 494 ng/mL.
Which non-invasive test is used to assess the veins of the calf or other body extremities for changes in blood volume?
Plethysmograph
Which non-invasive test is used to measure blood flow in arteries or veins. This is helpful in assessing intermittent claudication, obstruction of deep veins, and other disorders of peripheral veins and arteries?
Doppler ultrasound
When do clinical symptoms of valvular heart disease tend to occur after an episode of rheumatic fever?
10 to 40 years later
Which diagnostic tests are used to confirm a diagnosis of valvular heart disease?
Chest radiograph, ECG, echocardiogram, and cardiac catheterization.
What is a surgical splitting of the fused mitral valve leaflet for treating stenosis of the mitral valve?
Open mitral commissurotomy
Of the individuals affected with rheumatic fever, what percentage are between 5 and 15 years of age?
90%
Which test is used to detect prior infection by Group A Streptococcus, the bacteria responsible for diseases such as strept throat, glomerulonephritis, rheumatic fever, bacterial endocarditis, and scarlet fever?
ASO titer is a blood test to measure antibodies against streptolysin O, a substance produced by Group A Streptococcus bacteria
What is a weakness of the legs accompanied by cramplike pains in the calves caused by poor circulation of the arterial blood to the leg muscles?
Intermittent Claudication
What disorder is characterised by a progressive replacement of normal right ventricular muscle cells by fibrous tissue and fat.
Ventricular Cardiomyopathy
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