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Archaic Homo sapiens were big game Mammoth hunters. Spears were found about 400kya in Germany and 300kya in England. A Mammoth was also found with several spears through its rib cage. What tool industry was created by Archaic Homo sapiens to take down such big game animals? Was the industry a flake or core technology? What technique accompanied this industry?
Mousterian Tool Industry:
Flake Technology
Pointed tip
Groove to attach to spear
Typically seen with Sinew (Animal tendons)

Halfting: Putting a stone tool on the end of a stick.
"These things just ripped up the animal as they ran."
Archaic-Homo sapiens have many distinct features from their most recent ancestor, Homo erectus. What are some distinct features of Archaic-Homo sapiens and about how many years ago were they around?
Archaic-Homo sapiens -

Lived about:
400-27kya

Distinct features:
Elongated Skull
1,100 - 1,750cc brain size
Occipital bun
Chin shows up
The first Archaic-Homo sapiens were discovered before many other hominids around the time of Charles Darwin. Where were the first Archaic-Homo sapiens discovered and what were they nicknamed?
First Archaic-Homo sapien discovered in: Neander Valley, Germany.

Nicknamed: Neandertal

"tal" is German for valley.
What regions are Neandertals from? What separates Neandertals from other Archaic Homo sapiens?
Neandertals:
European and Middle Eastern Archaic Homo sapiens.

Neandertals vs. other Archaic Homo sapiens:
Larger brain size
Larger nose
Cold adept
Evidence suggests Archaic Homo sapiens were NOT part of our lineage and instead were a separate species that branched off from Homo erectus. This theory also states that we (Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens) also branched off from Homo erectus. What evidence exists that allows many Anthropologists to come to this conclusion?
The skull of Homo erectus had a dome shape.

The skull of Archaic Homo sapiens had an elongated shape.

The skull of Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens has a dome shape.

To suggest that Archaic Homo sapiens were part of our lineage would imply that our skull went from a dome shape, to an elongated shape, and then turned back into a dome shape. This is possible, but very unlikely. It makes more sense that Archaic Homo sapiens were NOT part of our ancestry and that we both branched from Homo erectus.
Archaic Homo sapiens have gone extinct, their last stronghold being Northern Spain. What is believed to have happened to their species?
Our species (Anatomically Modern Homo sapiens) came out of Africa and out-competed them. Archaic Homo sapiens died out.
What were the distinct features of the old man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints? What was the significance of "the old man?"
Old man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints: The skull of this elderly Archaic Homo sapien was found with no teeth.

It is believed an individual may have chewed his food for him; he still needed the caloric intake from meat.

This shows Archaic Homo sapiens may have taken care of one another. If so, this would indicate Archaic Homo sapiens had the ability to think more complexly.
Besides the old man of La Chapelle-aux-Saints, what are some other indications that Archaic Homo sapiens were capable of higher-order thinking?
Care and Compassion:
Animal bones, tools, and pollen (indicating flowers) were found in pits with these creatures. This may indicate Archaic Homo sapiens buried their dead. They may have been buried with their possessions to prepare them for the afterlife (Higher-order thinking).
Injuries are commonly found in Archaic Homo sapiens. 4/6 skulls located in Shanidar, Iraq have been noted to have antemortem (occurred before death) trauma. What is a possible explanation for so many injuries being found in Archaic Homo sapiens?
Big game hunting was a lifestyle for Archaic Homo sapiens; they hunted Mammoths. These injuries are believed to have been hunting accidents.
Homo erectus is believed to have scavenged fire and used fire only when available from wild fires. How does this differ from Archaic Homo sapiens?
Early Archaic Homo sapien sites show proof that Archaic Homo sapiens were able to create fire, compared to Homo erectus only scavenging fire.
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