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Not everybody agrees on the movement of the first human beings who inhabited North America. What are the two opposing theories of the origins of these Native Americans?
Two major opposing theories:

Asiatic - The first humans to inhabit North America were from Asia.

North Atlantic - The first humans to inhabit North America were from Europe.
Clovis points are the oldest human artifacts to be discovered in the Americas and were the fundamental basis for survival in the earliest human explorers. Where was the first Clovis point discovered and how many years ago is it believed to date back?
First Clovis Point:
Clovis, New Mexico
13.5kya

NOTE: Clovis points have been found in areas all over North America since.
What is a hafted Clovis point? What was the effectiveness of Hafted Clovis points?
Hafted Clovis point:
A Clovis point attached to the end of a spear.
These Clovis points were attached with Sinew (animal tendons).
Hafted Clovis points were also reloadable.

Hafted Clovis points were effective, but not very practical; too expensive to make. Eventually, smaller, more economical points were made.
Megaphona became extinct about 10-11kya. The Clovis people were believed to have helped, but were not the sole cause of their extinction. What factors are believed to have caused the demise of the Megaphona.
Pleistocene Overkill Hypothesis:
Megaphona inhabited the icy Northern region of North America.

Northern Ice-sheets recited.

Plant life came back, other animals that used to be North came back. These creatures were much smaller and could reproduce more rapidly compared to the Megaphona.

The Megaphona were outcompeted and their numbers quickly declined.

Humans came along while the Megaphona were phasing out.

"We added insult to injury, we didn\'t solely cause them to phase out."
One argument for the North Atlantic (European) theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

The Solutreans (a people from Europe) have been argued to have made stone tools that look nearly identical to Clovis points. This would indicate the Solutreans could have been the first to inhabit North America due to the litter of Clovis points found. What evidence exists that makes some Anthropologists disagree with this theory?
Nearly all Solutrean points were produced with an emphasis on art; shiny and artistic shaped tools. There are very little Solutrean points recovered that look like Clovis. It would make little sense for the Solutreans to convert their entire stone tool production to only these particular points as they inhabited the Americas.
One argument for the North Atlantic (European) theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

The first Native Americans came from Europe by boating along glacier inupiat. What evidence exists (or doesn\'t exist) that makes some Anthropologists disagree with this theory?
There is no evidence of fishing gear or boats.

Some Anthropologists argue that the boats and fishing gear are underwater due to tides being lower during the ice age.

This argument is still considered weak due to boats or fish hooks (these valuable technologies) not located in any adjacent rivers or other inland locations.
One argument for the North Atlantic (European) theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

Lineage X, an unknown gene, has been located in Native Americans (the Ojibwe) in the Canada Ontario area. Some Anthropologists believe Lineage X is of a European decent. What evidence exists (or doesn\'t exist) that makes some Anthropologists disagree with this theory?
It is unlikely lineage X is from Europe since lineage X exists only in the Canada Ontario area. For lineage X to be European, they would have had to die out. This idea could be used to argue that lineage X could have had just as much chance to be from Asia.
One argument for the Asiatic theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

Dating/timing of Archeological sites seem to add up that our ancestors progressed toward the landbridge from Asia to Alaska. It is believed our ancestors arrived in Alaska about 14,000ya. A minor hiccup in this argument has been noted in another archeological site that dates farther back than 14,000ya. How many years ago is this archeological site of our ancestors believed to be?
20,000ya.

The discovery of this older site does not make the argument totally invalid. Could our ancestors have moved around Alaska before moving more inward in North America?
One argument for the Asiatic theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

Linguistic evidence:
Changes in language can show the migration of a people by observing similarities in language today.

Native Americans have been grouped into 3 waves of classified languages. What are these 3 waves?

Three waves:

Amerind (14,000ya)
Na-Dene (9,000ya)
Eskimo-Aluet (2,000ya)
One argument for the Asiatic theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

Skeletal Evidence exists in Native Americans that makes many anthropologists believe Native Americans are from an Asiatic descent. What skeletal evidence exists?
Skeletal Evidence:
Teeth are genetically controlled.

Europeans have - flat incisors.
Asians have - shovel shaped incisors.

Native Americans have shovel shaped incisors. This is critical evidence of Asiatic descent.
One argument for the Asiatic theory for the origins of the first Native Americans includes:

Several routes are believed to have been taken by our Ancestors when they arrived in Alaska and began to move into North America. What were the possible routes?
The Ice-free Corridor:
Around 16,000ya, 2 Glacier sheets blocked passage into North America.

The Ice-free Corridor appeared, about 13,000ya, and allowed our ancestors to walk through from Alaska to North America.

Other possible passages:
Walking along the coast
By boat
Clovis appeared about 13,500ya. Clovis evolved into Plainview points, then Scottsbluff, then Eden, then finally, Folsom points. What is the distinct features between these points as they progressed?
Each point became smaller, more economical than the other.

Easier for our ancestors to produce and replace.

Folsom points:
appeared 11,000ya.
much thinner and shorter than Clovis.
Blackwater Draw, MN (13,000ya) and Olsen-Chubbuck, CO (8,000ya) are two locations with an Arroyo where mass groups of Bison were trapped and slaughtered by our ancestors. What is believed to have been used to trap these Bisons in the arroyo? What is an arroyo?
Arroyo:
Dried up river bed.

Fire was used by our ancestors to force the Bison into the Arroyo. With the Bison trapped, they were slaughtered from above in a massive slaughter.
Bonfire Shelter, TX (11,300ya) and Albert, Canada (6,000ya) are two locations where the mass killing of Bison has occurred through "Cliff Driving." What is "Cliff Driving?"
Cliff Driving:
Involved running the Bison off a cliff.
"Take them off a cliff, no stabbing required."
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