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Agriculture has been considered to have been the second greatest invention of all time (second to fire). What is another phrase that has been used to describe Agriculture?
Agriculture has also been considered the greatest mistake of all time.
With the introduction of Agriculture, our ancestors moved from a transitive, hunter-gatherer lifestyle, to a sedentary lifestyle. What were some of the consequences of this lifestyle change?
Decrease in Food supply: "Crops did not grow overnight."

Monocropping: At first, only a few food groups were grown, particularly wheat and barley.
"50 groups of plants and animals were cut off. You\'re not surviving on 1-2 crops."

Huge decline in skeletal health.

Disease build up: garbage waste, human waste, airborne pathogins.

Water Contamination: through waste.

Heart Disease: Occurs due to sedentary lifestyle.

Warfare Increase: People fighting over farm land.
With the increase in food production, our ancestors no longer had to have their entire population dedicated to food production; people were able to pursue other trades valuable to society. What is the term given to these individuals?

"Though farmers have little prestige, wealth, or power, farmers ultimately are the reason why we can specialize in other fields and are not stuck growing our own food."

"3% of U.S. population is involved in Agriculture, 97% are specialists."
Define Domestication.
Define Cultivation.
intentional or unintentional genetic alteration of plants or animals.
"domestication doesn\'t mean you domesticated the beast out of them. Domestication doesn\'t always go the best way; it just means you genetically altered them."

Intensification of use.
(i.e. weeding, protection, water)
Agriculture is believed to have been an accident. What argument have anthropologists made to justify this?
Our ancestors brought back the best fruits and best wheats. The seeds of these foods were discarded outside of their village. The plants of the best fruits & wheats grew, becoming "domesticated" plants. They unintentionally manipulated their environment.
Distinct differences are observable in wild vs. domesticated plants. What are the differences of Rachis in the wild vs. domesticated Rachis? What about wild nuts vs. domesticated nuts?
Wild - Easy break off stalk. Seeds fall easier providing advantage for the Rachis to spread.
Domesticated - Harder to break off stalk. Easier to handle in the field.

Wild - Hard glume (protective casing of a nut). Harder for animals to break.
Domesticated - Softer glume. Easier to break.
Maize (corn), a completely nonnutritious crop that appeared about 6,000ya (and is not necessarily considered an original crop), undergone a significant size change as the plant was domesticated. What is the general size difference between original maize and modern domesticated maize?
Original Maize: Significantly smaller than modern maize.

It is believed this occurred by plants attracting animals to eat their fruit with color and taste. While animals ate these fruits, they spread the seeds of these fruits as well. Larger maize prospered.
As agriculture became a more common practice, the amount of equipment began to increase as food production increased. What equipment did our ancestors use?

What did our ancestors require as food production and equipment production increased?
HINT: "It is probably the best evidence of domeatication."
Equipment used:
Grinding Stones, Mortar & Pestle

As food and equipment increased, our ancestors required:

"Storage is probably the best evidence of domestication. Pretty much anywhere storage is found, it is associated with an agricultural society. What else are you storing?"
The Auroch (original ancestors of modern day cows) were large creatures, about the same height as us. As they became domesticated, their body size decreased. This process is called ________ change. What is a possible explanation for why ________ change occurred?

(fill in the blank to answer question.)
The Auroch were subjected to:
Morphological change.

Morphological change is believed to have occurred due to a smaller animal being easier to control; the smaller ones were selected and bred for domestication.

It is also noted that the Auroch had undergone horn Morphological change as well (their horn began to point inward where it could not easily cause damage to people).
The majority of deaths of a population (humans included) in the wild tends to be young children, no greater than a year or two old. In the wild, if a member of that population survived their first two years, they tend to live to about 6-8 years old.

These statistics are different for a domesticated population. Though a good portion of deaths of a domesticated population are between the ages of 1-2, more deaths occur between the ages of 3-6. Most of the domesticated population does not live past 7.

With these statistics in mind, there is a significant difference between the deaths of a population in the wild and the deaths of a population that occur when domesticated.

My crude drawing of Professor Tyree\'s demographics on back.

NOTE: Image not on back. I couldn't find a way to upload the image onto the website. You will also need to open this card in the printable version to view fully.  :/
[IMGPATH:]/mnt/sdcard/StudyDroid/Anthropology Exam 3 (Origins of Agriculture)-11-true.jpg
Layers of fecal matter have been spotted underneath post-holes that were close to our ancestor\'s housing. What were these post-holes believed to have been?
Animal Pens
There is a distinct difference between the earliest domesticated plant and the earliest "wide-domesticated" plants. What plant was the earliest domesticated plant? What plants were the first wide-domesticated plants?
Earliest domesticated plant:
domesticated in Syria 12,000ya

Earliest wide-domesticated plants:
Wheat and Barley
Where were the first farmers believed to have come from? What plants did these farmers domesticate? What animals did these farmers domesticate?
First farmers:
Southwest Asia (Fertile Crescent)

Plants domesticated:
Wheat, barley, lentils, peas, flax (9,000 - 11,000ya)

Animals domesticated:
Dogs - 14,000ya
Goats, Sheep - 10,000ya
Pigs, Cattle - 8,000ya
What plants and animals did the farmers of Southeast Asia domesticate?
Southeast Asia domesticated:

Rice (11,000ya, South China)

Pigs and Millet (8,000ya, North China)
What plants and animals did the farmers of Africa domesticate?
Farmers of Africa (Sub-Saharan) domesticated:

Yams, Millet, Sorghum (3,500ya)

Cattle (5,000ya)
What plants and animals did the farmers of Meso America (Southern Mexico) domesticate?
The farmers of Meso America domesticated:

Gourds and Squash (10,000ya)

Avacados, chili-peppers, and beans (7,000ya)

Maize (corn) (6,000ya)

Turkey, dog, and stingless honeybees
What plants and animals did the farmers of South America domesticate?
The farmers of South America domesticated:

Gourds, tomatoes, beans, and potatoes (5,000ya)

Guinea pig, llama, alpaca (10,000ya)
What plants and animals did the farmers of North America domesticate?
The farmers of North America domesticated:

Goosefoot, Sunflower (5,500ya)
Maize (corn) started as a Meso American crop and eventually made its way to North America. As corn was grown, it was impractical for farmers to only grow corn on their plot of land at a given time; the corn leeched off the Nitrogen in the soil and made the soil incapable of growing other plants after roughly two harvests. To counter the inefficiency of growing corn, farmers grew "the three sisters." What plants were "the three sisters"?
Three sisters:
Corn, Beans, Squash

They grew with each other. Corn leeches off the Nitrogen in the soil, while Beans put the nitrogen back into the soil.

Plots of land could be used over and over without any loss of Nitrogen.

Leaves of the squash kept moisture at the base of the plants by preventing evaporation. Beans were able to grow along the squash.
Agriculture appeared simultaneously in which 6 areas of the world?
Agriculture simultaneously appeared in:
Southwest Asia
Southeast Asia
South America
North America
Meso America
Sub-Saharan Africa
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