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What is a civilization? What are the characteristics of a civilization?
Civilization:
Urbanized, state-level society

Characteristics:
Cities with complex organizations
Tribute and taxation
Stratification
Monumental Architecture
Define state.
Define complex organizations.
State:
A geopolitically bounded piece of land governed by people.

Complex organizations:
Government. As the amount of information to be distributed throughout a society increases (along with population increasing), so too does the need for a governing body to distribute that information.
Nile River, Mesopotamia, Greece, Southeast Asia, Indus Valley, Meso America, and the Andean region, all have what in common?
They all have agriculture in common; a strategy to feed a lot of people.

"Agriculture is at the foundation of Civilization."
Among the earliest civilizations lies the Sumerian empire. Where is the Sumerian empire located? How many years ago did the Sumerians date back?
Sumerian Empire:
Located in Mesopotamia (Southern Iraq).
6,000-5,000ya
During the Ubaid period (7,300-5,600ya) of the Sumerian empire, temple culture began to take shape. Cities started to form as urban centers became the center ground for social gatherings (such as politics, finding mates, ect...). What city in the Sumerian empire is believed to be the earliest settlement?
Eridu
During the Uruk period (named after the Sumerian city of Uruk), the Sumerian empire saw the emergence of urban life in Mesopotamia and a significant increase in population. What important aspect of urban life is noted during the Uruk period? What was the cause of the increase in population?
Important aspect of urban life: First Urban Center created during Uruk period.

Population increased from 10,000 to 50,000 due to immigration.
Following the Uruk period, Ur took control of Mesopotamia about 5,000ya and became the second major urban center of the Sumerian empire. During that time, (about 4,300ya) Ur was responsible for building one of the last relics of the Sumerian empire we still have today. What relic was built by Ur 4,300ya?
Sumerian God Temple

"Today, this building is surrounded by a military base to protect it from people who just like to blow stuff up to piss people off."
Anthropologists believe royalty may have had a role in the Sumerian empire. What evidence of royalty exists in the Sumerian empire?
Burials:

Some graves in the Sumerian empire were littered with gold leaf and other prestigious artifacts.
"This person had power."

Some graves in the Sumerian empire were plain.

This shows stratification (the arranging of people into classes or social structure).
The Sumerians have been credited with the creation of many inventions. What inventions did the Sumerians create?
Ziggurats:
Large temples

The wheel

Cuneiform writing:
wedge-shaped characters
5,000ya

Metallurgy:
Copper and bronze
first metal tipped plow
There is a significant difference between a state and an empire. What is this difference?
State:
A state is geopolitically bounded and cannot expand or shrink.

Empire:
Can be just as big as a state, can have just as much power as a state, but has the ability to move and/or expand/shrink.

Good way to remember this: the Inca Empire and their conquest through irrigation control.
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