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What are the 4 epithelial shapes?
A) squamous- (think squash/smash) - thin so allows for passage thru them B) cuboidal- cube shape- may have microvilli & may function in secretion or absorption C) columnar- tall- offer protection- may have cili or microvilli; OFTEN are speciliazed for secretion & absorption D) transitional- change shape (stretch) - urinary bladder
What are the 3 arrangements of epithelial cellls?
A) simple epithelium- single layer functions in: diffusion, osmosis, filtration, secretion, or absorption B) pseudostratified- appears to have multiple layers b/c cells nuclei lie at different levels & not all cells reach surface. Is really simple b/c all cells rest on the basement membrane. function in: often ciliated & contains goblet cells for secrtion C) stratified-two or more layers function in: protection keratonized- tough protein; helps protect skin & underlying tissue non-keratonized- soft parts of mouth, checks, & gums
What are the 3 functionsal classifications of exocrin glands.
Funtional classification of exocrine glands: merocrine, apocrine, & holocrine
Name 5 functions of connective tissue?
Functions of connective tissue: -Binds tissues together - Protects & insulates internal organs - Compartmentalize & transport - Energy reserves & immune responses
Where do you find the extracellular matrix? What is it made of?
Extracellular matrix is the material located between the cells. It consists of protein fibers & ground substance.
What is the function of ground substance? What is it made of?
Ground substance: -fluid, semifluid, gelatinous, or calcified - Functions to support & bind cells, store water, & allow exchange between blood & cells - Complex combination of proteins & polysaccharides
What are the 3 types of fibers found in the extracellular matrix?
Fibers of extracellular matrix: - collagen fibers- strong, but not stiff. Flexible - Elastic fibers- can be stretched but return to original shape - Reticular fibers- branching networks- think \"net\"
Name the 6 types of cells found in connective tissue.
Conntctive tissue cells: - Fibroblasts- usually most abundant- secretes the fibers & some other components of ground structure - Macrophages- \"large eaters\"- engulfs bacteria & cellular debris by phagocytosis. - Plasma cells- from B cells- secrete antibodies- important in immunity. - Mast cells- produce histamine which dilates blood vessels as part of inflammatory response. - Adipocytes- fat cells-adipose - White blood cells- not found in significant numbers in connective tissue, however increase in number when infection, parasitic invasion, or allergic response.
What are membranes?
Membranes are flat sheets of pliable tissue that cover or line a part of the body
What are the 3 types of epithelial membranes?
3 types of Epithelial= Mucous, Serous, & Cutaneous membranes
Describe mucous membranes & give an example.
Mucous membranes- line body cavities that open directly to the exterior. They consist of a lining layer of epithelium & an underlying layer of connective tissue. Connective tissue is areolar connective tissue & is called lamina ptopria. Mucous membranes line the entire digestive, respiratory, & reproductive tracts.
Describe serous membranes & give an example.
Serous membranes- lines a body cavity that dose not open directly to the exterior (thoracia or abdominal cavities), & it covers the organs within the cavity. Consists of areolar connective tissue covered by mesothelium ( simple squamous epithelium) that secretes a serous fluid for lubrication.
Muscle tissue is made up of muscle fibers called _______ .
Describe skeletal muscle tissue.
Skeletal muscle tissue- atted to bones; has striations; voluntary movement; varies in length & is roughly cylindrical in shape.
Describe cardiac muscles tissue.
Cardiac muscle tissue- striated; involuntary movement; has intercalated discs which are unique to cardiac muscle tissue
Describe smooth muscle tissue.
Smooth muscle tissue- non- striated; usually involuntary; found in walls of hollow internal structures like blood vessels, airways of lungs, stomach, ect.
What are excitable cells? Which 2 fibers are considered excitable?
Cells that exhibit electrical excitability, the ability to respond to certain stimuli by producing electrical signals such as action potentials. Neurons & muscles fibers are excitable cells. Action potentials propagate along a nerve or muscle plasma membrane to cause a response. Example- release of neurotrasmitters & muscle contraction.
Describe tissue repair.
Tissue repair- when tissue damage is extensive, both stroma & parenchymal cells are active in repair - Fibroblast divide rapidly - New collagen fibers are manufactured - New blood capillaries supply materials for healing Stroma- The tissue that forms ground substance, foundation, or framework of an organ. Parenchyma- The tissue of the functional part of any organ All of these processes create an actively growing connective tissue called granulation tissue
___________ membranes have an epithelium that is stratified & supported by dense connective tissue. A) synovial B) sreous C) cutaneous D) mucous
C) cutaneous
Mucous secretions that coat the pasageways of the digestive & respiratory tracts result from _____ secretion. A) apocrine B) merocrine C) holocrine D) endocrine
B) merocrine
Basis of the major controlling system of the body A) connective B) epithelium C) muscle D) nervous
D) nervous
Forms hormones A) connective B) epithelium C) muscle D) nervous
B) epithelium
Packages & protects body organs A) connective B) epithelium C) muscle D) nervous
A) connective
Most widely distributed tissue type in the body A) connective B) epithelium C) muscle D) nervous
A) connective
Lines the esophagus & forms the skin epidermis A) pseudostratified columnar ( ciliated) B) simple columnar C) simple cuboidal D) simple squamous E) stratified squamous F) transitional
F) transitional
Forms the lining of the stomach & small intestine A) pseudostratified columnar ( ciliated) B) simple columnar C) simple cuboidal D) simple squamous E) stratified squamous F) transition
B) simple columnar
Best suited for areas subjected to friction A) pseudostratified columnar (ciliated) B) simple columnar C) simple cuboidal D) simple squamous E) stratified squamous F) transitional
F) transitional
Provides great strength through parallel bundles of collagenic fibers; found in tendons
Dense fibrous connective tissue
composes the dermis of the skin
dense fibrous connective tissue
forms the bony skeleton
osseous tissue
composes the basement membrane & packages organs; includes a gel-like matrix with all categories of fibers & many cell types
areolar connective tissue
forms the embryonic skeleton & the surfaces of bones at the joints; reinforces the rachea
hyaline cartilage
provides insulation for the body
adipose connevtive tissue
structurally amorphous matrix, heavily invaded with fiber; appears glassy & smooth
hyaline cartilage
contains cells arranged concentrically around a nutrient canal; matrix is hard due to calcium salts
osseous tissue
forms the stroma or internal \"skeleton\" of lymph nodes, the spleen, & other lymphoid organs
reticular connective tissue
What are the two 2 types of glandular epithelium?
Glandular epithelium- 2 types: endrocrine & exocrine
Where does an endocrine gland secrete? qive an example.
Endocrine-secrete into bloodstream, i.e. hormones. Example: thyroid gland. Endocrine functions in mainaining homeostasis.
Where does an exocrine gland secrete?Give an example.
Exocrine- secretes into ducts that empty onto skin surface or lumen. Secretes- mucus, sweat, oil, earwax, saliva, & digestive enzymes. Example: sweat gland Multicellular exocrine classified by branching pattern & shape of secreting portion.
Describe merocrine secretion & give an example.
Merocrine- exocytosis thru secretory vesicle- ex: salivary glands
Describe apocrine secretion & give an example.
Apocrine- portion of gland cytoplasm is pinched off & secreted. Ex: mammary glands. Sweat glands also apocrine- think smelly ape
Describe holocrine secretion & give an example.
Holocrine- cell dies & becomes secretory product. Cell division replaces lost cell. Ex: zits! Sebaceous (oil) glands on skin
What tissue type is the most abundant & widely distributed tissue in the body?
connective tissue most abuntant & widely distributed tissue in the body
Is connective tissue vascular? Is it supplied with nerves?
Connective tissue is highly vascular & supplied with nerves. Exception is cartilage & tendons. Both have little or no blood supply & no nerves. Healing time is longer
What are the 2 categories of membranes?
2categories of membranes: Epithelial & Synovial
Describe cutaneous membranes & give an example.
Cutaneous membranes- covers the entire surface of the body; consists of epidermis & dermis.
Describe synovial membrane & give an example.
Synovial membranes- line the cavities of freely moving joints like the knee; lack epithelium. Synoviocytes secretes synovial fluid to lubricate & nourish the cartilage in the joint.
Muscle cells use _____ to generate force.
What are the 3 types of muscle tissue?
Skeletal, cardiac, & smooth
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