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The two major components of the integumentary system are?
the cutaneous membrane & the accessory structures
Beginning at the basal lamina & traveling toward the free surface, the epidermis includes the following layers:
germinativum, spinosum, granulosum, lucidum, corneum
Each of the following is a function of the integumentary system, except A) protection of underlying tissue B) excretion of salts & wastes C) maintenance of body temperture D)synthesis of vitamin C E) storage of nutreients
D) synthesis of vitamin C
Exposure of skin to ultraviolet light A) can result in increase numbers of melanocytes forming in the skin B) can result in decrease melanin production in melanocytes C) can cause destruction of vitamin D D) can result in damage to the DNA of cell in the stratum germinativum E) has no effect on the skin
D) can result in damage to he DNA of cell in the stratum getminativum
Two major components of the dermis are
papillary layer & reticular layer
The accessory structures of the integumentinclude the A) blood vessels, glands muscles, & nerves B) Markel cells, lamellated corpuscles, & tactile corpuscles C) hair, skin, & nails D) hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands, & sweat glands
D) hair follicles, nails, sebaceous glands, & sweat glands
The portion of the hair follicle where cell divisions occur is the A) shaft B) matrix C) root hair plexus D) cuticle
B) matrix
The two types of exocrine glands in the skin are A) merocrine & sweat glands B) sebaceous & sweat glands C) apocrine & sweat glands D) eccrine & sweat glands
B) sebaceous & sweat glands
The primary function of sensible perspiration is to A) get rid of wastes B) protect the skin from dryness C) maintain electrolyte balance D) reduce body temperature
D) reduce body temperature
The fibrous protein that is responsible for the strength & water resistance of the skin surface is A) collagen B) eleidin C) keratin D) elastin E) Keratohyalin
C) keratin
The darker an individual\'s skin color, A) the more melanocytes she has in her skin B) the more layers she has in her epidermis C) the more melanin her melanocytes produce D) the more superficial her blood vessles are
C) the more melanin her melanocytes produce
Epidermal cells that aid in the immune response include A) Merkel cells B) Langerhan\'s cells C) melanocytes D) spinosum cells
B) Langerhan\'s cells
Some infants are born with a fuzzy shin; this is due to: A) vellus hairs B) terminal hairs C) lanugo D) hirsutism
C) lanugo
The reticular layer of the dermis is most important in providing: A) strength & elasticity to the skin B) toughness to the skin C) insulation to prevent heat loss D) the dermal papilla, which produce fingerprints
A) strength & elasticity to the skin
Translucent cells, containing keratin A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosm D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinossum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
D) stratum lucidum
strata containing all or mostly dead cells A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
B)statum corneum & D) stratum lucidum
Dermis layer responsible for fingerprints A) stratum basale B) ststum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
F) papillary layer
Vascular region A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
I) dermis as a whole
Epidermal region involved in rapid cell division; most inferior epidermal layer A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
A) stratum basale
Scalelike cells full of keratin that constantly flake off A) stratum basale B) stratum corneum C) stratun granulosm D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F)) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
B) stratum corneum
Site of elastic & collagen fibers A)strratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticutar layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
I) dermis as a whole
Site of melanin formation A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
A) stratum basale
Major skin area from which the derivatives (hair, nails) arise AI) dermis as a whole) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
H) epidermis as a whole
Epidermal layer containing the oldest cells A) stratum basale B) statum corneum C) stratum granulosum D) stratum lucidum E) stratum spinosum F) papillary layer G) reticular layer H) epidermis as a whole I) dermis as a whole
B) statum corneum
Radiation from the skin surface & evaportion of seat are two ways which the skin helps to get rid of body?
heat
Fat in the ________ tissue layer beneath the dermis helps to insulate the body.
subcutaneous
A vitamin that is manufactured in the skin is ________.
vitamin D
Wrinkling of the skin is caused by loss of the __________ of the skin.
elasticity
A decubitus ulcer (pressure ulcer) results whene skin cells are deprived of _____.
oxygen
Full-thickness burn; epidermal & dermal layers destoryed A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third-degree burn
C) third-degree burn
blisters form A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third-degree burn
B) second-degree burn
Epidermal damage, redness, & some pain (usually brief) A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third-degree burn
A) first-degree burn
Epidermal & some dermal damage; pain; regeneration is possible A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third- degree burn
B) second-degree burn
Regeneration impossible; requires grafting A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third-degree burn
C) third-degree burn
Pain is absent because nerve endings in the area are destroyed A) first-degree burn B) second-degree burn C) third-degree burn
C) third-degree burn
Describe thin skin
Thin skin is found in all parts of the body expect areas such as palms, palmar surface of digits, & soles. Only has 4 layers because the stratum lucidum is essentially lacking. Has hair
Describe thick skin
Thick skin is found in areas such as palms, palmar surface of digits, & soles. It has five layers because it contains a stratum lucidum layer. It lacks hair
What are the functions of skin?
-Regulation of body temperture (insulstion, evaporation, vasodilatation & vasoconstriction) -Blood reservoir -Protection of underlying tissue & organs -Cutaneous sensations (touch, pressure, pain, & temperature) -Excretion (salts, water, organic waists via glands) & absorption -Synthesis of vitamin D -Stores lipids
The skin is also called the ____________ . It is the _________ orggan of the body by surface area & weight.
cutaneous membrane, largest
What are the 3 major layto ers of the skin & describe each layer.skin the underlying tissues & organs.
Epidermis, dermis, hypodermis Epidermis-outer thinner layer that is composed of avascular, keratinized stratified squamous epithelium. Has 4 or 5 layers depending of which type of skin it is. Dermis- inner thicker layer composed of connective tissue containing collagen & elastic fibers & capillaries. Consists of 2 layers: papillary region & reticular layer. Hypodermis- located underneath the dermis & attaches the skin to the underlying tissues & organs.
What are the 4 types of cells in the epidermis? Describe each one
Keratinocytes-90% of the cells (most abundant in epidermis) Produce keratin which is a tough fibrous protein that provides protection Melanocytes-produce the pigment melanin that protects against damageby ultraviolet radiation Langerhans cells-involved in immune responses-fixed macrophage Arise from red bone marrow Merkel cells-function in the sensation of touch along with the adjacent tactile discs
What are the 5 layers that can be found in the epidermis? Describe
Stratum basale or stratum germinativum- is the deepest layer where continuous cell division occurs which produces all other layers Stratum spinosum-8-10 layers of keratinocytes Stratum granulosum-includes keratohyalin & lamellar granules Stratum lucidum-present only in thick skin (the skin on fingertips, palms, soles) Stratum corneum-that are continuously shed & replaced by cells from deeper strata. Constant friction can stimulate formation of a callus.
Describe the 2 layers of the dermis
Papillary region-outer layer that consists of areolar connective tissue containing thin collagen & elastic fibers, dermal papillae (including capillary loops), corpuscles of touch & free nerve endings. Reticular layer-consists of dense irregular connective tissue containing collagen & elastic fibers adipose cells, hair follicles, nerves, sebaceous (oil) glands, & sudoriferous (sweat) glands. Stiae or tretch marks can appear if the skin is stretched too much.
Explain the role of vitamin D in the body. What disease is associated with a lack of vitamin D?
Epidermal cells produce cholecalciferol (vitamin D3) in the presence of UV radiation. The liver & kidneys then convert vitamin D3 into calcitriol which aids in the absorption of calcium & phosphorus. Insufficient vitamin D3 can cause rickets which results in weak, sagging bones because of lack of calcium matrix.
What is Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF)
It is a powerful peptide growth factor produces by glands. It is used in the lab to grow skin grafts. The functions of EGF are: 1) it promotes division of germ cells 2) it accelerates keratin production 3) it stimulates epidermal repair 4) it stimulates glandular secretion
What are epiermal ridges?
They are a reflection of the contours of the underlying dermal papillae & they form the basis for fingerprints (& footprints). They help to increase firmness of grip by increasing friction.
What are the 3 common forms of skin cancer? Describe
Basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, malignant melanomas Basal cell carcinoma- most common skin cancer. The tumors arise from cells in the strarum basale & rarely metastasize. Squamous cell carcinoma-arise from the stratum spinosum & have a variable tendency to metastasize. (basal & squamous cell carcinomas are known as nonmelanoma skin cancer) Malignant melanomas arise from the melanocytes & they metastasize rapidly & can kill a person within months of diagnosis.
Name & describe the 3 pigments that compose the basis of skin color
Melanin-a yellow-red or brown-black pigment produced by melanocytes (located mostly in the epidermis, where it absorbs UV radiation).The amount of melanin causes the skin\'s color to vary from pale yellow to red to tan to black. The actual number of melanocytes are about the same in all people, therfore, differences in skin color is due to the amount of pigment produced. Carotene-a yellow-orangepigment found in the stratumorneum, dermis, & subcutaneous layer. Hemoglobin-a Red color located in erythrocytes flowing through dermal capillaries.
Describe the composition, structure, & function of hair.
Hair (pili) is composed of dead, kerarinized epidermal cells The structure of hair: Shaft-which mostly projects above the surface of the skin Root-which penetrates into the dermis Hair follicle Epithelial root sheath Dermal root sheath Functions of hair: Protection Reduction of heat los Sensing light touch
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