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The articulation between adjacent vertebral bodies is a A) syndesmosis B) symphysis C) synchondrosis D) synostosis
B) symphysis
The anterior articulation between the two pubic bones is a A) synchondrosis B) synostosis C) symphysis D) symphyses
C) symphysis
Which of the following is not a function of synovial fluid? A) shock absorption B) nutrient distribution C) maintenance of ionic balance D) lubrication of the articular surfaces E) waste disposal
C) maintenance of ionic balance
The structures that limit the range of motion of a joint & provide mechanical support across or around the joint are A) bursae B) tendons C) menisci D) A, B, & C
B) tendons
Considered to be part of a synovial joint are: A) bursae B) articular cartilage C) tendon sheath D) capsular ligaments
B) articular cartilage & D) capsular ligaments
Which of the following joints has the greatest freedom of movement? A) interphalangeal B) saddle joint of thumb C) distal tibiofibular D) coxal
D) coxal
Has amphiarthrotic & synarthrotic examples A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
A) cartilaginous
Bone regions united by fibrous connective tissue A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial 1) epiphyseal disk 2) suture 3) symphysis
B) fibrous & 2) suture
joint between the atlas & axis A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
All are reinforced by ligaments A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Joint providing the most protection to underlying structures A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial 1) epiphyseal disk 2) suture 3) symphysis
B) fibrous & 2) suture
Why would improper circulation of synovial fluid lead to the degeneration of articular cartilages in the affected joint?
Because articular cartilages lack a blood supply, they rely on synovial fluid to supply nutrients & eliminate wastes. Impairing the circulation of synovial fluid would have the same effect as impairing a tissue\'s blood supply: Nutrients would not be delivered to meet the tissue\'s needs, & wastes would accumulate. Damages to, & ultimately the death of, the cells in the tissue would result.
Name the bones making up the shoulder joint & knee joint, respectively
Shoulder joint: humerus & scapula Knee joint: femur, tibia, & patella (the fibula does not participate in the knee joint)
How do articular cartilages differ from other cartilages in the body?
Articular cartilage lacks a perichondrium, & their matrix contains morebwater than does the matrix of other cartilages
How would you explain to your grandmother the characteristic decreases in height with advancing age?
Height decreases during adulthood in part as a result of osteroporosis in the vertebrae, & in part as a result of the decline in water content of the nucleus pulposus region of intervertebral dics.
List the 6 different types of diarthroses (synovial joints) & give an example of each
Plane: intercarpal, intertarsal Hinge: elbow Pivot: atlanto-axial & radioulnar joints Condyloid: radiocarpal (wrist) Saddle: thumb Ball-&-socket: shoulder
A synarthrosis lovated between the bones of the skull is a A) symphysis B) syndesmosis C) synchondrosis D) suture
D) suture
The function of the articular cartilage is A) to reduce friction B) to prevent bony surfaces from contacting one another C) to provide lubrication D) both A & B
D) both A& B
Abduction & adduction always refer to movements of the A) axial skeleton B) appendicular skeleton C) skull D) vertbral column
B) appendicular skeleton
Rotation of the forearm that makes the palm face posteriorly is A) supination B) pronation C) proliferation D) projection
B) pronation
A saddle joint permits ____________ movement but prevents ___________ movement. A) rotational, gliding B) angular, linear C) linear, rotational D) angular,rotational
D) angular, rotational
Examples of monaxial joints, which permits angular movement in a single plane, are A) the intercarpal & intertarsaljoints B) the shoulder & hip joints C) the elbow & knee joints D) all of these
C) the elbow & knee joints
Decreasing the angle between bones is termed A) flexion B) extension C) abduction D) adduction E) hyperextension
A) flexion
Movements that occur at the shoulder & the hip represent the actions that occur at a _________ joint. A) hinge B) ball-n-socket C) pivot D) glinding
B) ball-n-socket
Subacromial, subcoracoid, & subscrapular bursae reduce friction in the ________ joint. A) hip B) knee C) elbow D) shoulder
D) shoulder
Although the knee joint is only one joint, it resembles __________ separate joints. A) 2 B) 3 C) 4 D) 5 E) 6
B) 3
The hip is an extremely stable jointbecause it has A) a complete bony socket B) a strong articular capsule C) supporting ligaments D) all of these
D) all of these
Dislocations involving synovial joints are usually prevented by all of the following EXCEPT A) structures such as ligaments that stabilize & support the joint B) the position of bursae that limits the degree of movement C) the presence of other bones that prevent certain movements D) the position of muscles & fat pads that limits the degree of movemen E) the shape of the articular surface
B) the position of bursae that limlts the degree of movement
Cartilaginous joints include: A) syndesmose B) symphyses C)syostoses D) synchondroses
B) symphyses & D) synchondroses
Which specific joint does the following description identify? \"Articular surfaces are deep & secure, mutiaxial; capsule heavily reinforced by ligaments; labrum helps prevent dislocation; the first joint to be built artificially; very stable.\" A) elbow B) hip C) knee D) shoulder
B) hip
An autoimmune disease resulting in inflammation & eventual fusion of diarthrotic jionts is: A) gout B) rheumatoid arthritis C) degenerative joint disease D) pannus
B) rheumatoid artritis
Plane joint allowed: A) pronation B) flexion C) rotation D) gliding
D) gliding
All have a fibrous capsule lined with synovial membrane surrounding a joint cavity A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Joints between skull bones A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial 1) epiphyseal disk 2) suture 3) symphysis
B) fibrous & 2) suture
Hip, elbow, & knee A) cartilagnous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
All examples are diartroses A) cartilagnous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Pubic symphysis A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial 1) epiphyseal dick 2) suture 3) symphysis
A) cartilaginous & 3) symphysis
Often contains a fluid-filled cushion A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Child\'s long-bone growth plate made of hyaline cartilage A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial 1) epiphyseal disk 2) suture 3) sympysis
A) cartilginous & 1) epiphyseal disk
Most joint of the limbs A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Often associated with bursae A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
Have the greatest mobility A) cartilaginous B) fibrous C) synovial
C) synovial
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