by mtoom


keywords:
Bookmark and Share



Front Back
Name 2 genera of Aerobic Gram Positive Cocci
  • Staphylococcus
  • Streptococcus
What are the 2 major distinguishing features of Staphylococcus?
  • Gram-positive
  • Cocci in clusters (i.e. "grapes")
Name 2 Staphylococcus species
  • S. aureus
  • CNS (coagulase negative staphylococci; i.e. S. epidermis)
Describe pathogenicity (3) and clinical significance (7) of S. aureus
Pathogenicity
  • α-hemolysin
  • enterotoxins
  • TSST1

Clinical significance

Cod Nets
  • Cystic fibrosis pneumonia
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Diarrhea 
  • Necrotizing fasciitis
  • Endocarditis
  • Toxic shock syndrome
  • Skin and soft tissue infections
Describe pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (3) of S. epidermis (CNS; coagulase negative staphylococci)
Pathogenicity
  • Biofilm production (i.e. exopolysaccharide)
Clinical significance
  • Osteomyelitis
  • Noscomial blood stream infections associated with IV catheters
  • Prosthetic material infections 
What are the 2 major distinguishing features of streptococcus?
  • Gram-positive
  • Cocci in pairs and chains
Name 5 organisms that belong to Streptococcus, and indicate their common names and hemolytic status
  • Group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes) [β-hemolytic]
  • Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae[β-hemolytic]
  • S. pneumoniae [α-hemolytic]
  • S. mitis [α-hemolytic]
  • Enterococci (genus) [non-hemolytic]
What is the basic classification of Staphylococcus?
Aerobic gram positive cocci
What is the basic classification of Streptococcus?
Aerobic gram positive cocci
Describe the pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (5) of Group A Streptococcus (S. pyogenes)?
Pathogenicity
  • Streptolysin O & S
  • Erythrogenic toxin
Clinical significance
  • Pharyngitis
  • Skin and soft tissue
  • Necrotizing fasciitis
  • Rheumatic fever
  • Streptococcal TSS (toxic shock syndrome) 
Name 1 organism that is of genus Listeria spp
Listeria monocytogenes
Name 4 major distinguishing features of Listeria genus
  • Gram-positive
  • Single or short-chain rods
  • Non-branching
  • Motile
Describe the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (2) of Group B Streptococcus (S. agalactiae)?
Pathogenicity
  •  Polysaccharide capsule
Clinical significance
  • Early onset neonatal disease (pneumonia, sepsis)
  • Late onset neonatal disease (meningitis, sepsis) 
Name pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (4) of Listeria monocytogenes?
Pathogenicity
  • Hemolysin
Clinical significance
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Septicemia
  • Meningitis
  • Pregnancy: abortion, stillbirth, preterm labour 
Describe the pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (4) of S. pneumoniae?
Pathogenicity
  • Polysaccharide capsule
  • IgA protease
Clinical significance
  • Meningitis
  • Conjunctivitis
  • Community-acquired pneumonia
  • Otitis media
What is the basic classification of Listeria genus?
Aerobic gram positive bacilli
Describe the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (3) of S. mitis?
Pathogenicity


  • Extracellular complex polysaccharides to enhance attachment


Clinical significance


  • Native valve endocarditis

  • Bacteremia

  • Meningitis

Name 1 genus of Anerobic Gram Positive Cocci
Peptostreptococcus spp.
Describe the pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (3) of Enterococci (genus)?
Pathogenicity
  • Surface adhesions
  • Secreted toxins
Clinical significance
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Endocarditis
  • Nosocomial VRE (vancomycin-resistance enterococci) 
Name 2 genera of Aerobic Gram Positive Bacilli
  • Corynebacterium spp
  • Listeria spp
Name 3 distinguishing features of Corynebacterium
  • Gram-positive
  • Rods
  • Non-branching
What are the major distinguishing features (3) of peptostreptococcus?
  • Elongated cocci
  • Gram-positive
  • Non-spore forming
Name 2 species of Corynebacterium
  • C. diphtheriae
  • C. jeikeium
Name pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (1) of Peptostreptococcus spp.
Pathogenicity: unknown
Clinical significance: Mixed anaerobic and aerobic bacteria infections, including cutaneous, respiratory, oral or female pelvic infections
Give pathogenicity (1) and clinical signifance (1) of C. diphtheriae
Pathogenicity
  • Diptheria toxin
Clinical significance
  • Diptheria (pharyngeal)
What is the basic classification of Peptostreptococcus?
Anerobic gram positive cocci
Give pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (3) of C. jeikeium
Pathogenicity
  • Unknown (low virulence)
Clinical signifiance
  • Endocarditis
  • Foreign-body infections
  • Septicemia (IV catheters) 
What is the basic classification of Corynebacterium spp?
Aerobic gram positive bacilli
What genus (1) is under Gram Positive Bacteria?
Peptostreptococcus spp.
Name 3 distinguishing features of Peptostreptococcus spp.
  • Elongated cocci
  • Gram-positive
  • Non-spore forming
What is the basic classification of Listeria spp?
Aerobic gram positive bacilli
What are the 2 genera of the Anerobic Gram Positive Bacilli?
  • Actinomyces spp.
  • Clostridium spp.
Describe the 2 major distinguishing features of Actinomyces spp.?
  • Gram-positive
  • Branching, filamentous bacilli
What is the organism (1) in Actinomyces spp.?
Actinomyces israelii
What is the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (3) of Actinomyces israelii?
Pathogenicity:
  • Disruption of protective mucosal surface
Clinical significance:
  • Oral/cervicofacial infections
  • Pelvic infections (IUD)
  • Abdominal infections 
What is basic classification of Actinomyces spp.?
Anerobic gram positive bacilli
What is the basic classification of Clostridium spp.?
Anerobic gram positive bacilli
What are the 4 species of Clostridium spp.?

4 Clostridium's:
  • C. tetani
  • C. perfringens
  • C. botulinum
  • C. difficile
What are the 5 major distinguishing features of Clostridium spp.?
  • Gram-positive
  • Box-car shaped rods (blunt ends) = C. perfringens
  • Straight rods = C. difficile, C. tetani
  • Straight/curved rods = C. botulinum
  • Spores
What is the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (1) of C. tetani?
Pathogenicity: Tetanus toxin

Clinical significance: Tetanus
What is the pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (2) of C. perfringens?
Pathogenicity
  • α-toxin
  • Entertoxins
Clinical significance 
  • Gas gangrene
  • Diarrhea/bloody, acute necrotizing GI infection 
What is the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (1) of C. botulinum?
Pathogenicity: Neurotoxin

Clinical significance: Botulism (flaccid paralysis)
Describe the pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (1) of C. difficile
Pathogenicity: Toxin A and Toxin B

Clinical significance: Diarrhea (antibiotic or hospital acquired)
What is the basic classification for Clostridium spp.?
Anerobic gram positive bacilli
What 4 groups (3 genera, 1 species) of organisms belong to Enterobactericeae?
  • Escherichia coli
  • Enterobacter spp
  • Salmonella spp
  • Proteus spp
What are the 2 major distinguishing features of Enterobacteriaceae?
  • Gram-negative
  • Rods
What is the basic classification of Enterobacteriaceae?
Aerobic gram negative fermenters
What is the pathogenicity (4) and clinical significance (3) of Escherichia coli?
Pathogenicity
  • Endotoxin
  • Exotoxin
  • Capsule
  • Pili
Clinical significance
  • Meningitis in newborns
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Gastrointestinal infections
What is the pathogenicity (4) and clinical significance (3) of Enterobacter spp?
Pathogenicity
  • Exotoxins
  • Endotoxins
  • Capsules
  • Adhesion proteins
Clinical significance
  • Urinary tract infections
  • Nosocomial infections
  • Blood infections 
What is the pathogenicity (3) and clinical significance (3) of Salmonella spp?
Pathogenicity
  • Adhesion proteins
  • Survival in phagocytes
  • Dissemination to other tissues
Clinical significance
  • Gastrointestinal infection
  • Bacteremia
  • Enteric fever
x of y cards Next >|