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Name 2 genera that are part of Spirochetes/spiral

  • Helicobacter spp.

  • Treponema spp.

Name the 2 defining features of Helicobacter spp. group

  • Gram-negative

  • Spiral

Name 1 bacteria that is part of Helicobacter spp.
Helicobacter pylori
Helicobacter spp. is part of what major group?
Spirochetes/spiral bacteria
Describe the pathogenicity (3) and clinical significance (1) of Helicobacter pylori
Pathogenicity


  • Acid resistance

  • Establishes residence in stomach

  • cagA gene (associated with ulcer formation)


Clinical significance


  • Duodenal and gastric ulcers 

Name 3 major distinguishing features of Treponema spp.

  • Spirochete

  • Tightly wound, slender coils with pointed ends

  • Cannot gram stain (uses darkfield microscopy or labeled antibodies)

What 1 species is part of Treponema spp.?
Treponema pallidum
Treponema spp. is part of what major group?
Spirochetes/spiral bacteria
Describe pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (4) of Treponema pallidum
Pathogenicity
  • Lack of proteins on outer membrane of cell wall
  • Antigenic variation
Clinical significance 
  • (1o) syphilis: painless chancre
  • (2o) syphilis: myalgia, headache, fever, rash
  • (3o) syphilis: neurosyphilis (general paralysis, tabes dorsalis), cardiovascular syphilis (aortic lesions, heart failure)
  • Congential syphilis (facial and tooth abnormalities) 
What genus belongs to Acid-Fast bacilli?
Mycobacterium spp.
Name 4 major distinguishing features of Acid-Fast Bacilli

  • Non-spore forming, non-motile bacteria

  • Special Zielh-Neelsen staining needed

  • Slow-growing

  • Fastidious growth requirements

What 2 organisms are members of Mycobacterium spp.?

  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

  • Mycobacteruim avium complex (MAC)

Describe pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (4) of mycobacterium tuberculosis?
Pathogenicity


  • Survive and multiply in alveolar macrophages

  • Carried to lymphatics and can start other foci of infection


Clinical significance


  • Primary pulmonary disease

  • Reactivation disease

  • Disseminated disease

  • World-wide issue of public health concern 

Describe pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (3) of mycobacterium avium complex (MAC)?
Pathogenicity: Inhibition of lysosome-phagosome fusion

Clinical significance:


  • Pulmonary disease

  • Disseminated infection in AIDS patients

  • Opportunistic infection in immunocompromised hosts 

What genus is part of non-gram staining bacteria?
Mycoplasma spp.
What are the 2 major distinguishing features of Mycoplasma spp.?

  • No cell wall

  • Need special growth media 

What 2 groups (3 organisms total) are members of Mycoplasma spp.?

  • Genital mycoplasma (M. hominis, M. genitalium)

  • Mycoplasma pneumoniae

Name pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (1) of Genital Mycoplasma?
Pathogenicity: Resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics

Clinical significance: Non-gonococcal urethritis in males
Name pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (3) of Mycoplasma pneumoniae?
Pathogenicity


  • Polyclonal T-cell and B-cell activators

  • Trigger formation of cold agglutinins (clump RBCs)


Clinical significance


  • Atypical pneumonia

  • Dermatologic involvement

  • Cardiac and neurologic complications

What major group does Mycoplasma spp. belong to?
Non-gram staining bacteria
What are the 2 major groups of obligate intracellular bacteria?

  • Chlamydia/chlamydophila spp.

  • Rickettsia spp.

Name 2 distinguishing features of Chlamydia/chlamydophila spp.

  • Cannot be cultivated, requires living cells

  • Intracellular



Name 2 organisms of Chlamydia/chlamydophila

  • Chlamydia trachomatis

  • Chlamydophila psittaci

Name pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (8) of chlamydia trachomatis?
Pathogenicity


  • Complicated intracellular lifecycle

  • Inhibits phagosome-lysosome fusion


Clinical significance


  • Urethritis

  • Epididymitis

  • Proctitis

  • Cervicitis

  • PID

  • Conjunctivitis

  • Infant: conjunctivitis, pneumonitis

  • Lymphogranuloma venerum

  • Atypical pneumonia

Name major group of genus chlamydia/chlamydophila spp.?
Obligate intracellular bacteria
Name 3 major distinguishing features of Rickettsia spp.?

  • Small, gram negative bacteria

  • Growth requires living cells

  • Zoonotic infections caused by tick/mites/fleas



Name 1 organism in Rickettsia spp.
Rickettsia rickettsii
Describe pathogenicity (2) and clinical significance (1) of Rickettsia rickettsi?
Pathogenicity


  • Tick vector (Dermacentor spp.)

  • Cell-to-cell spread (hundreds of contiguous infected epithelial cells)


Clinical significance


  • Rocky mountain spotted fever (fever and rash)

What major group does Rickettsia spp. belong to?
Obligate intracellular bacteria
What is the pathogenicity (1) and clinical significance (1) of Chlamydophila psittaci?
Pathogenicity: Birds (vector)
Clinical significance: Atypical pneumonia
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