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Alexander II’s successor, Alexander III (r. 1881-1894), reverted to Nicholas I’s policies of “Orthodoxy, Autocracy, and Nationality,” carrying out a sweeping policy known as _________, in which all people living in the Russian Empire were forced to adopt Russian culture and language or face persecution.
Alexander II was assassinated by
 radical socialists. Alexander III worked to suppress the socialists and any radical groups, and thus carried out a policy of “Russification, orthodoxy, and autocracy.”
During the industrialization that rapidly spread through Russia during the 1890s, which of the following resulted? (Check all that apply.)
Russia greatly increased the goods exported to other nations Russia’s railroad system expanded to double its previous length Government-owned industry led to great exploitation and abuse of the working classThe working class proletariat and the commercial middle class grew
By the late 1890s, the Trans-Siberian railroad united
 Europe with Eastern Russia. Since the government controlled the industry and factories in Russia, workers were often subjected to abuse, exploitation, and poor working conditions. Although the size of the proletariat (working class) and the commercial middle class grew, most peasants continued to have a standard of living that was centuries behind the Western world. Various political parties developed to address the needs of the Russian people.
During the mid- to late 19th century in Russia, culture and arts flourished, including which of the following accomplishments?
Novelist Dostoyevsky wrote The Brothers Karamazov Novelist Leo Tolstoy wrote novels, such as Anna Karenina and War and Peace, that realistically portrayed 19th-century Russian society All of these Romantic composer Tchaikovsky composed ballets, such as The Nutcracker and Swan Lake
Leo Nikolayevich Tolstoy, Russian author of the Realism movement, is regarded by many as
 one of the greatest novelists of all time. Tolstoy’s novel Anna Karenina addresses the hypocrisy and falseness present in 19th-century Russian aristocracy (upper class).
The _______ International, a loose federation of socialist and labor parties formed in 1889, fell apart prior to the First World War, when separate nationalist parties supported their country’s position in the wartime era and failed to maintain an unified anti-war front.
Prior to the end of this federation, the socialist party of each country in Europe was a part of the
 Second International, an organization that supported workers’ rights, democratic government, and socialist ideologies. Ironically, as Europe moved closer to the brink of war, strong feelings of nationalism caused members of this anti-militarist organization to support their own nation’s cause, which prevented the formation of a united front against the war.
At the Russian Marxist Congress in 1903, Marxist revolutionary _________ (1870-1924) convinced a few in the Marxist party that a small group of elite, professional revolutionaries, known as Bolsheviks, should control the party and lead a revolution in Russia, instead of allowing democratic rule within the party.
Lenin alienated most members of the Marxist party who supported a democratic organization and did not like
 the idea of rule by a few elite revolutionaries. Ironically, although he was only supported by a few within his party, Lenin called his supporters Bolsheviks (majority) and his party opponents Mensheviks (minority).
Russia was decisively defeated by the _______ in a 1905 war and forced to give up its territorial holdings and railroad rights in Manchuria (mineral-rich area of northeast China) and revoke its claim to Korea and part of the Sakhalin Islands.
After modernizing and industrializing, Japan had a strong
 military and joined in the race to colonize. Japan went to war with China in 1898. Next, Japan went to war with Russia, dealing the Eastern European nation a decisive defeat and taking Manchuria, the Sakhalin Islands, and most of Korea from Russian control. Korea became a Japanese protectorate. These losses were a humiliating blow to the Russians, who had never before been defeated by a non-White nation.
In a 1905 event known as _____ _____, Russian czar Nicholas II felt threatened by a peaceful protest for Enlightenment reforms, led by orthodox priest Father Gapon and thousands of pro-socialist workers, and ordered troops to open gunfire to subdue the protesters.
Bloody Sunday
In response to this event, protest erupted throughout Russia: workers
 went on strike, peasants revolted, and workers formed revolutionary organizations. Russians were fed up with the excesses and corruption of the Romanov (the Russian royal family line) tsars, and demanded change. Workers and peasants demanded reform; although Tsar Nicholas II answered these cries, his reform measures were weak and temporary.
In response to the outcry of the Russian people for reform, and the civil unrest that erupted during the Revolution of 1905, Tsar Nicholas responded with the _____ Manifesto, in which he promised legislative and political reform, including the Duma, a legislative body to represent the people. Unfortunately, Tsar Nicholas only maintained the reforms temporarily.
Feeling threatened by the reform measures demanded of him by the Duma, Nicholas II
quickly ended this people’s legislative body. Nicholas II did institute certain reforms that helped raise the standard of living of certain peasants (known as kulaks).
Following devastating defeats at the Battles of Masurian Lakes and Tannenberg,
Russian support for the participation in the First World War greatly diminished
As a result of these battles, the Russians lost a
 great amount of territory, and numerous soldiers and civilians died. The Russian people began to strongly oppose the war, tired of the humiliating losses, starvation, and poverty. Troops began to desert the battlefield. Tsar Nicholas II, who had gone to the war front to help with the fighting effort, stepped down from his throne. Revolutionaries overthrew the government.
After supposedly healing the bleeding hemophiliac son of Russian Tsar Nicholas II, a “mad monk” known as ________ fell into favor with the Tsar and his wife Alexandra, but was assassinated by nobleman in 1916 who feared that this strange man’s influence had gone too far.
Rasputin had a wild reputation and was known among the peasants in Russia as a
 healer and a holy man. When he was able to heal the son of the royal family, Empress Alexandra took care of Rasputin. Rasputin despised the nobility and attempted to be the voice of the Russian peasants to the monarchs.
Following the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II in 1917, radicals who stood in opposition to the new provisional government established local communist councils (workers’ committees) known as ________.
Unlike the provisional government, the soviets supported seizure of the former
Tsar’s land, as opposed to allowing legal confiscation of the land. In addition, the soviets supported immediate withdrawal from WWI. The soviets gained support from soldiers who were weary of war, and from the masses who wanted food and property. The political, economic, and social message of the soviets was attractive to the Russian masses who had little power or rights.
In 1917 __________ (1870-1924), radical Russian Bolshevik Party founder who had been exiled to Switzerland, was brought back to Russia with Germany’s assistance; however, he/she was not initially successful in overthrowing Kerensky’s provisional government.
Lenin and his Bolsheviks with their radical cries were once again sent into exile. Moderate provisional government leader Alexander Kerensky
remained in power, but decreased in popularity when he refused to withdraw Russia from the First World War. Of note, the provisional government passed immediate legislation to make all Russians politically equal, established an 8-hour work day, and granted universal voting rights.
With the help of Leon Trotsky (1877-1940), Lenin overthrew Russia’s provisional government on November 6-7, 1917, an event that became known as the _______ Revolution.
Following this victory, Lenin established a dictatorship and ruled Russia with a few other men. Lenin claimed
to act in the best interest of the people, stating that peasants were not quite ready for a Marxist revolution and needed to be led into this perfect form of life and government by the vanguard, the Bolshevik Party’s best revolutionaries. The revolutionaries used the phrase “Revolution from above” to justify the use of a dictatorship to institute liberty. These revolutionaries claimed that they were acting in the interest of the proletariat (working class), but their actions showed otherwise—they oppressed the proletariat more than the Russian tsars had done.
Lenin’s Bolshevik Party used the propaganda-ridden slogan “Peace, Land, and ______” in order to gain support of the Russian proletariat (working-class).
Although Lenin’s widespread propaganda campaigns painted him as a common man who was acting in the interest of the
 proletariat, Lenin had no intention of bringing equality, land ownership, or stability to peasants or to the working class.
By November 1918, the Bolsheviks under Vladimir Lenin had accomplished which of the following? (Click all that apply.)
Ended Kerensky’s provisional government and consolidated power under Communist Party control Removed Russia from the First World War Brought key industries under government ownership and control Confiscated the land owned by the Russian Orthodox Church
The Bolshevik Party, now known as the
 Communist Party, created a dictatorship to rule Russia. The government seized control of industry and of private and public land.
Russia gave up the majority of its western lands, including Estonia, Poland, the Ukraine, Latvia, and Lithuania, in its 1918 _____-Litovsk peace treaty with Germany and the Central Powers, which allowed Russia to withdraw from the First World War.
Lenin’s first goal after the October Revolution was the
removal of Russia from the First World War. Soon after bringing Russia out of WWI, the Bolsheviks gave control of factories to factory committees, groups of workers who performed union-type roles. In addition, the Bolsheviks took control of all land, private and public.
In 1919, Lenin and the Bolshevik party met with various radical socialists to form the Comintern (aka "Third International"), which established ______ as the center of revolutionary leadership and sought to rapidly spread communism throughout the world.
The socialist congress known as the
Comintern composed twenty-one conditions, including the rapid introduction of communism and the establishment of Moscow as the center of revolution.
________, who had helped Lenin in the 1917 October Revolution, led Lenin’s Red Army in the Russian Revolution and supported world-wide Communist revolution.
Following Lenin’s death, Trotsky was Lenin’s obvious heir-apparent, but
Trotsky was suppressed by Josef Stalin, a man who wanted to “build Socialism in one country.” Trotsky, a Jew, was disliked by anti-Semitists (anti-Jews) in the U.S.S.R.; he was eventually assassinated by one of Stalin’s men.
Soon after the Bolsheviks seized power, Russia experienced civil war as people from various political groups worked to support or overthrow the new Soviet government. The Red Russians, including the urban working-class proletariat, supported the communist Bolsheviks, while the ____ Russians, including peasants, the middle class, and tsarists, supported traditionalism and opposed the Bolsheviks.
In spite of support from many other countries, including the U.S. and Britain, the
White Russians were unable to defeat the Bolshevik army, in part due to propaganda campaigns run by the Bolshevik governments demonstrating the threat presented by the presence of foreign powers.
The Russian Civil War, which was fought between 1918 and 1922 in order to end counterrevolutionary revolts and extend Communist control across the Roman Empire and into Siberia and central Asia, was supported by the ______, but opposed by Russia’s First World War allies, peasants, the middle class, and socialists.
Urban workers, known as proletariats, were the primary group supporting the
 Red Army. Peasants, the middle class, various socialists groups and Russia’s First World War allies opposed the Red Army, but were not able to form a successful, organized front to oppose the spread of Communism across Russia.
Which of the following were important outcomes of the Russian Civil War of 1918-1922? (Check all that apply.)
Russia’s former allies, including Britain and the U.S., distrusted Russia and feared Communist takeover Famine spread through the countryside and into cities, resulting in peasant revolutions The Red Army grew in size, giving greater power and control to the Bolshevik (Communist) Party
Russia’s former WWI allies strongly opposed Communist takeover of Russia, fearing that
 Communism would spread across the West. The White Russians, who opposed the Bolsheviks, were unsuccessful in preventing the Red Army from spreading Lenin’s rule across Russia and into Siberia and Asia.

Under Lenin’s policy of “war communism,” peasants’ crops were seized and sent to the cities. As a result of this policy, many peasants cut their crop production and widespread famine resulted. Widespread rebellion led Lenin to allow peasants to sell some of their crops, which encouraged increased crop production and helped to ease the famine.
Following the end of the Russian Civil War in 1922, Lenin ____________________. (Check all that apply.)
Encouraged ethnic toleration and maintenance of cultural uniqueness Joined various major ethnic groups under the unified federation of republics known as the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (U.S.S.R) Allowed certain ethnic groups to maintain autonomy within the U.S.S.R
Lenin worked toward “nationalities reform,” allowing the diverse ethnic groups within the
 U.S.S.R. to maintain their individual cultural identities and encouraging a policy of tolerance. Lenin even allowed schools to teach the native languages of the various ethnic groups. Although most nations and ethnic groups were brought under Bolshevik rule in the U.S.S.R., certain smaller ethnic groups in some regions of the U.S.S.R. were allowed to maintain autonomous rule.

Lenin’s U.S.S.R. constitution allowed working-class citizens and peasants to vote for local Soviets (workers’ Congresses); in each republic within the U.S.S.R., the local Soviets elected district Soviets, which then elected a republic Soviet. A joint Congress of Soviets represented all the republics and elected a cabinet-like government organization.
British author George Orwell wrote the novel ____ _____ (1945) as a satire about Soviet totalitarianism; in this book, he states, “All animals are equal, but some animals are more equal than others.”
Animal Farm
Following Lenin’s death in 1924, __________ rose into power; he/she supported the former dictator’s New Economic Policy, opposed international revolution, and called for the construction of “socialism in one country.”
Stalin’s arch rival for Russia’s leadership was
heir-apparent Leon Trotsky. Unlike Stalin, Trotsky supported immediate, international, permanent revolution; Trotsky represented the left wing of the Bolshevik Party, was eventually exiled to Siberia, and was assassinated by a Soviet agent in Mexico. Stalin established a newspaper called Pravda (truth) and used this media to circulate his propaganda.
Joseph Stalin was able to rise to leadership in Communist Russia because in his position as ________ of the Communist Party; he had appointed many of his supporters into powerful positions in the party.
Following Lenin’s death, the Communist Party was split over whether or not to
expand Communism outside of Russia: Trotsky supported this move, but Stalin opposed it. Stalin’s former work to appoint his friends and supporters to powerful positions within the Communist Party eased Stalin’s rise to power.
In the late 1920s, Stalin replaced Lenin’s New Economic Policy with a group of “___-___ plans” aimed at using highly centralized planning to carry out the rapid industrialization of Russia.
five year
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