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Digestive System is made up of:
organs that form the digestive tract and accessory organs
The digestive tract is also known as:
The Alimentary Canal and The gastrointestinal (GI) tract
Alimentary canal organs
mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, small intestine and large intestine
accessory organs
salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, pancreas
Eating food and drinking fluids
Ingestion
Peristalsis
major menas of propulsion through the alimentary canal
Mechanical/Physical digestion
physical manipulation of food by chewing with teeth and churning by the stomach
chemical digestion
chem. breakdown of large, complex food molecules into smaller building block molecules vie ENZYMES
absorption
movement of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract into the blood through blood capillaries. Some lipids are absorbed into the lymph system (lacteals/lymphatic capillaries)
Mucosa - a mucous membrane
innermost layer of the GI tract
Mocosa consists of three specific layers:
lining epithelium, lamina propria and muscularis mucosae
lining epithelium 'lines' the lumen of the GI tract and has direct contact with food. Made up of
Simple Columnar Epithelium (stratified squamous epithelium lines the mouth, pharynx and esophagus)
Lamina propria
connective tissue deep to the lining epithelium contains most of the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (malt)
Muscularis mucosae
very thin layer of smooth muscle external (deep) to the lamina propria
Histology of alimentary canal wall - major layers
mucosa (lining Epithelium, Lamina Propria, Muscularis Mucosae), submucosa, muscularis externa (circular layer and Longitudinal Layer), serosa/visceral peritoneum
Submucosa
Consists of connective tissue
Muscularis externa
mostly made up of two layers (circular layer and longitudinal layer of smooth muscle)
circular layer of smooth muscle
lies closest to the lumen
longitudinal layer of smooth muscle
lies deep to the circular layer of smooth muscle
activity of the smooth muscle in the muscularis externa is regulated by the
parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system specifically through the Vagus nerve
Serosa/Visceral peritoneum
outermost layer of the GI tract wall
serosa/visceral peritoneum
a serous membrane layer that is directly on (part of) most organs in the abdominopelvic/peritoneal cavity.
peritonitis
infection and inflamation of the peritoneum (burst appendix)
special folds of the peritoneum
Mesentary, greater omentum, falciform ligament
mesentary
sheet like structure that fans inferiorly from the posterior abdominal wall like a long pleated curtain to support the long coils of the jejunum and ileum of the small intestine
Greater Omentum
attached to the greater curvature of the stomach from which it extends inferiorly to cover most of the front of the intestines like a lacy apron
Lips/Labia
form the anterior border of the mouth
the mouth/oral cavity/buccal cavity is lined with
Stratified Squamous Epithelium
gums/gingivae
gum/gingiva
the vestibule
slit between the lips and teeth and cheeks and teeth
cheeks are primarily made up of
skeletal muscle (specifically) the Buccinator
The Tongue is largely composed of __ ___ and has a fold of mucous membrane/mucosa on its undersurface calle the ___ ___
Skeletal Muscle
Lingual Frenulum
chewing is also known as ___
Mastication
Teeth rest in bony sockets called ___ in the ___ margins of the ___ and ____.
Alveoli, Alveolar Margins, Mandible and Maxilla
during their lifetime hummans have two sets of teeth:
Deciduous and Permanent
There are usually __ permanent adult teeth including the third molars or ____ teeth
32 permanent teeth

third molars or Wisdom Teeth
How many of each:
incisors, canines, premolars, molars
On each half of the upper and lower jaw there are:
2 incisors, 1 canine, 2 premolars and 3 molars
teeth are innervated by the ___ and ___ _____ nerve that branches from the maxillary/mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve
Superior and inferior Alveolar Nerve that branches from the Maxillary and Mandibular divisions of the Trigeminal nerve
Two main divisions of a tooth are the ___ (above the gingiva) and the ____ (below the gingiva embeded in the jawbone).
Crown and the Root.
____ is the hardest substance in the body!
Enamel
A layer of bone like material called ____ forms the bulk of the tooth (both crown and root).
Dentin
The external surface of the root of a tooth is covered by a connective tissue called ___.
Cementum
Cementum is attached to the ____ ligament that helps anchor the tooth in the bony socket (alveolus) of the jawbone.
Periodontal ligament
The space that occupies the center of the tooth is called the ___ ____.
The Pulp Cavity (everything in the cavity is called 'pulp' and includesnerves and blood vesels
Root canal involves:

Cavities are:
root canal = removal of pulp material, filling with inert material and capping
Cavity = gradual demineralization of enamel and dentin by bacterial action.
Salivary enzymes begin the digestion process of some carbohydrates. What is Saliva?
Produced by the salivary glands, saliva is a mixture of water, mucus and enzymes
Largest of the salivary glands, anterior to the ear, between the masseter muscle and the skin. This salivary gland often swells when somone gets the mumps.
Parotid Salivary Gland
This salivary gland lies on the medial surface of the mandibular body just anterior to it's junction with the mandibular ramus.
The Submandibular Salivary Gland
This salivary gland lies on the floor of the oral cavity under the tongue.
The Sublingual Salivary Gland
Only two parts of the pharynx are part of the digestive tract. Which ones?
Oropharynx and Laryngopharynx
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