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Outer floral envelope; usually at the base of flower, protects the bud and early fruiting stages
Sepal
Collective term for fused sepals; lowest position on receptacle
Calyx
Inner floral envelope surrounding the reproductive organs; commonly pigmented to attract pollinators
Petals
Collective term for fused petals; interior to sepals
Corolla
Collective term for all members of the floral envelope (includes sepals and petals); often used when dissimilar
Perianth
The ovule producing part of a flower that contains one or more carpels/pistils
Gynoecium
The pollen producing part of a flower that contains one or more stamens
Androecium
Female reproductive organ composed of three parts
Pistil
The swollen basal portion of the pistil containing ovules
Ovary
The neck of a pistil which supports the stigma
Style
Apical portion of pistil that receives pollen
Stigma
An immature seed; located in the ovary; upon fertilization it will become a seed
Ovule
Male reproductive organ composed of two parts
Stamen
Stalk of a stamen
Filament
Top of the stamen; location of pollen
Anther
The portion of the pedicel upon which the flowers are borne
Receptacle
Stalk of an inflorescence
Peduncle
Stalk of an individual flower or fruit
Pedicel
Collective term for sepals and petals when similar
Tepals
A modified leaf-like structure subtending a flower
Bract
An enlarged bract (think Arisaema)
Spathe
A whorl of bracts subtending a flower cluster
Involucre
Flowers overlapping like shingles on a roof or fish scales
Imbricate
A complete flower contains:
At least one pistil, at least one stamen, petals and sepals
A perfect/bisexual/hermaphroditic flower contains:
At least one pistil and at least one stamen
Having no stamens but pistils are present
Pistillate/carpellate
Having no pistils but stamens are present
Staminate
Floral parts fused/inserted below the ovary
Superior/hypogynous
Floral parts fused to the ovary wall; inserted on or above the ovary
Inferior/epigynous
Flowering or fruiting branch; term applied to axis from which flowers and fruits are born
Inflorescence
Inflorescence axis ends in a flower halting elongation of the axis (blooms down and out)
Determinate
Inflorescence axis ends in meristematic tissue which continues to grow and form lateral flowers; a terminal bud is never formed (blooms up and in)
Indeterminate
The peduncle produces a flower at its tip, subsequently the peduncle produces two branches simultaneously at a lower level. They also end in flowers. This inflorescence has only three flowers, the central being the oldest and the sides ones younger
Dichasium
The same inflorescence as the previous card, but this one is branched, producing many subsets of the same three-flowered units.
Cyme
Elongated inflorescence with stalked flowers
Raceme
Inflorescence with lower pedicels longer than the upper ones
Spike
A false whorl of opposed cymes; two dichasial cymes on opposite sides of the stem usually at axis of opposite leaves
Verticillaster
Branched, racemose inflorescence (compound raceme)
Panicle
Flowers crowded and sunken into a thickened rachis
Spadix
Inflorescence racemose; drops as a unit (appears in wind pollinated systems)
Catkins
Involucrate inflorescence with all pedicels arising from the same point (apex of peduncle)
Umbel
Involucrate inflorescence of sessile flowers arising at the same point (apex of peduncle)
Head/capitulum
Plants which have flowers and fruit borne from their main stems or woody trunks rather than from new growth and shoots; stem flower
Cauliflorous
Typical flower containing sex parts in the center surrounded by one or two rows of petals, sepals and/or bracts
Single
A type of flower, often sterile, which has double the normal amount of petals arranged in two to three rows. Extra petals are partially transformed stamens (petaloids); some stamens still evident
Semi-double
A flower with more than the normal number of petals, colored sepals or bracts; in most cases petals replace all stamens; often designated botanically by 'plena' or 'pleniflora'
Double
The most obvious florets found on the outer row which resemble the petals of other flowering plants; small strap-shaped flowers in the flower head of certain composite plants; these florets are either female or neutral
Ray florets
The central/inner florets of composite flowers; these are fused into a tubular shape. They are either bisexual or male
Disk florets
A one-seeded fruit in which the outside of the developed ovary becomes a hard wall. Often partially or completely enclosed by an involucre
Nut
A hard, usually dry, dehiscent fruit which splits along two or more seams; these remain tight until maturity.
Capsule
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