by mtoom


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What are the 4 classes of DNA viruses, and give one example of each.
  • Adenovirus (e.g. Adenovirus)
  • Papillomavirus (e.g. HPV)
  • Herpesvirus (e.g. HSV-1, HSV-2)
  • Hepadanavirus (e.g. Hepatitis B)
Of the DNA viruses, which are double-stranded (ds) and which are both double-stranded and single-stranded (ds/ss)?
  • Of the 4 DNA viruses we need to know:
  • 3 (adenovirus, papillomavirus, herpesvirus) are ds only
  • 1 (hepadanavirus) is ds/ss
Of the 4 DNA viruses, which are circular and which are linear?
  • Circular: hepadanavirus, papillomavirus
  • Linear: adenovirus, herpesvirus
Of the 4 DNA viruses, which have envelope and which do not?
  • Envelope: herpesvirus, hepadanavirus
  • No envelope: adenovirus, papillomavirus
Describe genome, envelope, disease (3) and pathogenesis (2) for adenovirus
Genome: ds, linear
Envelope: no

Disease
  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Gastroenteritis
  • Conjunctivitis
Pathogenesis
  • Respiratory route or fecal-oral
  • Wide number of types associated with different diseases
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (2) and pathogenesis (2) for papillomavirus
Genome: ds, circular
Envelope:
 no

Diseases

  • Warts
  • Various cancers
Pathogenesis 
  • Contact transmission
  • Persistent high-risk HPV infections can lead to cancer 
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (1) and pathogenesis (2) for herpesvirus
Genome: ds, linear
Envelope:
 yes

Disease

  • Infections of skin and mucosa, eyes, central nervous system
Pathogenesis
  • Contact or vertical transmission
  • Becomes latent inside neurons; periodic reactivation can occur
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (3) and pathogenesis (2) for hepadanavirus
Genome: ds/ss, circular
Envelope:
 yes

Disease

  • Hepatitis
  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatocellular carcinoma
Pathogenesis
  • Exposure to bodily fluids or vertical transmission
  • Infects hepatocytes, requires reverse transcriptase for replication 
What are the 8 classes of RNA viruses, and give one example of each.
  • Orthomyxovirus (e.g. influenzae)
  • Paramyxovirus (e.g. RSV)
  • Reovirus (e.g. rotovirus)
  • Togavirus (e.g. rubella)
  • Flavivirus (e.g. West Nile virus)
  • Rhabdovirus (e.g. rabies)
  • Picornavirus (e.g. enterovirus)
  • Calicivirus (e.g. norovirus)
Of the RNA viruses, which are double-stranded (ds) and which are (-) or (+) single-stranded (ss)?
  • All RNA viruses are single-stranded (ss), except for Reovirus which is double-stranded (ds)
  • -ss viruses: orthomyxovirus, paramyxovirus, rhabdovirus
  • +ss viruses: togavirus, flavivirus, picornavirus, norovirus
Of the 8 RNA viruses, which are segmented (2) and which are linear (6) ?
  • Segmented: orthomyxovirus, reovirus
  • Linear: paramyxovirus, togavirus, flavivirus, rhabdovirus, picornavirus, calcicivirus
Of the 4 RNA viral classes, which have an envelope (5) and which have no envelope (3)?
  • Envelope: orthomyxovirus, paramyxovirus, togavirus, flavivirus, rhabdovirus
  • No envelope: reovirus, picornavirus, calicivirus
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (1) and pathogenesis (2) for orthomyxovirus (e.g. influenza)?
Genome: -ss, 8 segments
Envelope:
 yes

Diseases

  • Respiratory tract infection
Pathogenesis 
  • Droplets/aerosolized
  • Undergoes antigenic drift/shift
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (1) and pathogenesis (2) for paramyxovirus (e.g. RSV)?
Genome: -ss, linear
Envelope:
 yes

Diseases

  • Respiratory tract infection
Pathogenesis 
  • Droplets
  • Can be serious for infants
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (1) and pathogenesis (2) for reovirus (e.g. rotavirus)?
Genome: ds, 11 segments
Envelope:
 no

Diseases

  • Gastroenteritis
Pathogenesis 
  • Fecal-oral
  • Can be serious for infants
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (2) and pathogenesis (2) for togavirus (e.g. rubella)?
Genome: +ss, linear
Envelope:
 yes

Diseases

  • Rubella
  • Congenital rubella syndrome
Pathogenesis 
  • Droplets or vertical
  • Teratogenic
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (2) and pathogenesis (2) for flavivirus (e.g. West Nile virus)?
Genome: +ss, linear
Envelope:
 yes

Diseases

  • West Nile fever
  • CNS infections
Pathogenesis 
  • Mosquitos
  • Most infections are subclinical
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (1) and pathogenesis (2) for rhabdovirus (e.g. rabies)?
Genome: -ss, linear
Envelope:
 yes

Diseases

  • Encephalitis
Pathogenesis 
  • Animal bite (saliva)
  • Invariably fatal without post-exposure prophylaxis
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (5) and pathogenesis (2) for picornavirus (e.g. enterovirus)?
Genome: +ss, linear
Envelope:
 no

Diseases

  • Respiratory tract infections
  • Hand-foot-mouth disease
  • Conjunctivitis
  • CNS infections
  • Myocarditis
Pathogenesis 
  • Droplets or fecal-oral
  • Diverse family of viruses causing a wide range of diseases
Describe genomeenvelope, disease (2) and pathogenesis (2) for calicivirus (i.e. norwalk/norovirus)?
Genome: +ss, linear
Envelope:
 no

Diseases

  • Gastroenteritis
Pathogenesis 
  • Fecal-oral, food, water or aerosolization
  • Seasonal epidemics
Pneumonic for RNA viruses?
P - Please - Paramyxovirus
R - Remember - Rhabdovirus
O - Operating - Orthomyxovirus
R - Room - Reovirus
P - Physicians - Picornavirus
C - Cant - Calicivirus
T - Touch - Togavirus
F - Freely - Flavivirus

This pneumonic is useful, because the attributes of the RNA viruses will line up neatly if you fill out a table for (ss+/ss-/ds, seg/linear, env/no env.) using the list of RNA viruses in this order. Try filling out a table and you will see what I mean.
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