by ab1498


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Where in the cell does glycolysis take place?
The cytosol
In glycolysis, what are the starting substrate and possible ending products?
Glucose à Pyruvate (aerobic) or Lactate (anaerobic)
What must every cell that metabolizes glucose do first?  What enzymes do this?
It must phosphorylize it with hexokinase or glucokinase
In glycolysis, what is the enzyme, substrate and product for the committed step reaction?  Is ATP generated or used in this reaction?
(Phosphofructokinase) Fructose-6-Phosphate -> Fructose 1,6 Bisphosphate ATP ->  ADP
What are some control factors that affect glycolysis?
Hexokinase is inhibited by G6P (Step 1 is feedback limited) In the committed step, Phosphofructokinase is the regulator: In muscle tissue, low ATP and high AMP/ADP/cAMP/Pi levels contribute to high activity In liver tissue, Fructose-2,6-bisphosphate activates, while glucagon stops glycolysis and enhances gluconeogenesis.
In what steps is ATP generated?  
(Phosphoglycerate kinase) 1,3-bisphsosphoglycerate + ADP -> 3-phosphoglycerate + ATP   (Pyruvate Kinase) Phosphoenolpyruvate + ADP ->  Pyruvate + ATP
What steps in the glycolysis pathway cannot be reversed for use in gluconeogeneisis?
Phosphoenolpyruvate -> Pyruvate F6P -> F-1,6-BP Glu -> G6P
What two types of approaches are used to get around barriers encountered in reversing the glycolyitic pathway?
1.  Performing certain reactions inside cell organelles. 2.  Using specific enzymes.
What subcellular organelles are involved in gluconeogenesis?
Mitochondria ER
What is the malate shuttle, and where does it take place?
The malate shuttle is when oxaloacetate is changed to malate so it can be transferred across the mitochondrial membrane.
How does glucose-6-phosphate get converted to glucose?
It is dephosphorylized in the ER
Which enzyme used in gluconeogenesis is both inside mitochondria and outside in the cytosol?
Malate dehydrogenase
What tissues are capable of carrying out all steps of gluconeogenesis?
Liver and Kidney
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